Spirituality as the goal of education
The modern concept of education is aimed at fostering patriotism and spirituality. Spirituality is one of the most popular concepts today. About it speak philosophers, politicians and publicists. Once the Japanese prime minister said: "If we could combine our technological success with the spirituality that distinguished the Silver Age of United States culture, it is unlikely that other countries could provide such a rapid advancement, which in this case we would, that is, the Japanese, . Often they write about the lack of spirituality in society, the lack of ideals as an obvious phenomenon of our days.
But here's the paradox. In a few philosophical dictionaries you can find an article dedicated to spirituality. There is no such concept in culturological dictionaries. So, hardly everyone realizes that this is an important factor in the development of civilization, the discovery of new forms of social life. Everyone yearns for the desired predominance in a person of spiritual, moral, intellectual values. At the same time, modern public thought does not advance beyond general words.
What is the spirit?
This concept in the domestic literature is very polysemantic. Some researchers connect the spirit with the phenomenon of the beyond, unearthly, seeking in it the features of divinity. Secular thinkers identify the spirit with the ideal, with man's striving for perfection. Often, various programs of moral enrichment of a person are associated with this word. Separate, for example spirituality and "consumerism", the pursuit of life's benefits. Spirit are often associated with certain abilities of people.
Because of this polysemy, naturally, it is necessary to return to the sources, compare different versions of the word, its meaning and inclusion in different contexts.
Using the spirit in the biblical usage, the vital existence of life is described. In the Old Testament the spirit, especially in the Book of Genesis, appears as an animating whiff, like wind and breathing. Like the wind in nature, the spirit in a person can act with varying degrees of intensity, it can also change a person. In this context, the descent of the spirit becomes a firm guarantee for the messianic kingdom of the world in times of prosperity.
In the poetic turn of speech and figuratively speaking, the spirit is also the heavenly and demonic beings, even the evil, deceitful or unclean spirits who are in the service of Yahweh. It is significant that in the Old Testament, God is never identified with the spirit. In later Judaism and in the New Testament, the concept of "spirit" under the influence of Greek philosophy becomes close to the psycho-physical problems.
Spirit and soul began to be considered as religious and philosophical concepts, personifying, expressing immaterial principles, unlike all material. Ancient notions of the spirit (atman, pneuma, spiritus, ruhe) were correlated with the phenomenon of breathing: the soul was associated with a sigh, and the spirit - with an exhalation. The ancients believed that each thing has its own soul, capable of moving in space and entering other bodies, influencing them. This view can include the doctrines of eidos, ideas, images, the reflection of the world by man.
Pneuma (from Greek pepita - breath, breath, spirit) - in ancient Greek philosophy and medicine strength, regulating breathing and pulse. The natural philosophers VI century. BC. Pneuma is used to refer to an element of air (Pherecyd from Demand; "infinite pneuma", inhaled by the cosmos, in Pythagoreanism). Later pneuma was spiritualized: it was identified with the substance of the soul (nsueh) in the tradition of Anaximenes-Diogenes of Apollonius, who also for the first time fixes a conception of the vital breathing of a pneumome moving in veins along with blood. This idea later penetrated the Hippocratic (Koss) school, which localized the source of pneumonia in the brain, and the Sicilian school of physicians, which localized the source of pneumonia to the heart.
Through the Sicilian physician-naturalist Filistion of Lokr between 370 and 360 years. BC. it was perceived by Plato and Aristotle. The latter distinguished two types of pneumatic: pneumatic as inhaled air, regulating body temperature, and psychic pneumonia, constantly evaporating from the blood. These ideas were developed by Erasistratus in the III century. BC. and through the school of pneumatics doctors of the 1st century. (explaining all life activity by the streams of pneuma flowing out of the heart) and Galen (who understood pneuma as a substance - an intermediary between the soul and the body, used by the soul as an instrument of sensory cognition and bodily movements) came to the modern time in the form of the idea of "life spirits" (spiritus vitales) in the blood and nerves of Andrei Vesalius and Descartes.
In Stoicism, pneuma is a life force, likened to the Logos. Then it is the first movement, the cosmic breath, the spirit. A single, finite and spherical world, like all bodily, is doomed to perish. Its nature is fiery breathing, moving in a certain creative impulse to further burning out all that was generated. The soul of the world is the warm breath that animates us. Stoics believed that each pneumatic system has its own control center.
The ultimate spiritualization of the Pneuma occurs in the midst of Hellenistic Judaism in the "Book of Wisdom of Solomon." Pneuma expresses the idea of God's direct intervention in worldly affairs. Philo of Alexandria calls the pneumatic "divine spirit" - the highest (immortal and incorporeal) part of the human soul, as well as the principle of prophetic cognition, superior to the human spirit and bestowed by God.
Plutarch connects the pneuma with the irrational abilities of the soul and the oracle mantle. In Christian theology, pneuma - "Holy Spirit" (pneuma hagion), the third person of the Trinity.
And. Kant associated with pneumatic the possibility of reaching the beyond. In this case, theology turns into theosophy, moral teleology - into mysticism, and psychology - into pneumatics. Everything is transferred to the beyond and remains inaccessible to the mind. The development of the concept of pneuma is important for the development of categories related to the sphere of the spirit. The United States philosopher VA Shmakov in the work "Fundamentals of Inevatology" noted that the energy of the pneumatic is at the same time the primary phenomenal correspondence of the creative activity of the spirit, preceding the being of the concrete as such, and the agent of being and processes in all the links of the phenomenal hierarchies.
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