Stages of the educational process - Pedagogy. Theoretical pedagogy

3.3. Stages of the educational process

It is easy to see that educational processes do not differ in special variety, often occur according to the same scheme. This is due to many reasons. First, the limited means of influencing a person. How can you influence it? Good word, friendly participation, call, suggestion, cuff, rope. All. And if you exclude all the intermediate stages of influence, the word, example and birch will remain. Secondly, the susceptibility (or immunity) of a person to educational influences. Here the choice of means is even poorer, usually the one that gives the fastest result is used. Third, the inability to solve all problems at once. The gradualness of teaching obliges each new act to be built according to the same pattern: explanation, exercise, result. In connection with this educational processes are cyclical.

The modern theory in the development of all educational processes reveals the same stages (stages). Stages are not parts, but sequences of development of the process. The main stages are the following: preparatory, main, final.

1. At the stage of preparation of the educational process (preparatory), proper conditions are created for the process to proceed in a given direction and at a given rate. At this stage, the following important tasks are solved: goal-setting, condition diagnostics, forecasting of achievements, design and planning of the development of the process.

The essence goal-setting (justification and goal setting) is to transform the general pedagogical goal facing the public education system into specific tasks achievable on a given segment of the educational process and in the current specific conditions. The goal setting is always attached to a specific system of implementation of the educational process - school, class, lesson, etc. At this stage in the functioning of the educational process, the contradictions between the general pedagogical goal and the specific capabilities of the trainees are revealed, ways and ways of resolving these contradictions in the projected process are outlined.

Put the right target, you can not define the process tasks without diagnostics. Pedagogical Diagnostics (from Greek dia - transparent and gnosis is knowledge) is a research procedure aimed at "clarification" conditions and circumstances in which the educational process will take place. Its main goal is to get a clear idea of ​​the reasons that will help or hinder the achievement of the intended results. During the diagnostics all necessary information is collected about the real capabilities of teachers and students, the level of their previous training, the conditions of the process, many other important circumstances. It is important to emphasize that originally planned tasks are corrected according to the results of the diagnosis: very often specific conditions make them reconsider, bring them into line with real possibilities.

Diagnostics should predict the course and results of the educational process. The essence of the prediction (prefix "pro" indicates the lead) is that before, before, before the beginning of the process to assess its possible effectiveness in the current concrete conditions. Applying scientific forecasting, we can learn about what else is not, in advance theoretically weighed and calculate the parameters of the process. Prediction is carried out using rather complicated methods, but the costs of obtaining forecasts pay off, since in this case, teachers are able to actively intervene in the design and progress of the educational process, without waiting for it to be ineffective or lead to undesirable consequences. We will get acquainted with concrete examples of diagnostics and forecasting of the educational process below.

The preparatory phase of the process organization project, , corrected on the basis of the results of the diagnosis and forecasting, is completed, which, after finalizing, is embodied in the plan. The plan, like the process itself, is always tied to a particular system. In pedagogical practice, various plans are applied-the management of the teaching and upbringing process in the school, the educational work in the classroom, the plans for carrying out individual educational matters, lessons, and so on. Plans for educational processes have a certain period of validity. Thus, the plan is the final document, in which it is precisely defined, to whom, when and what to do.

2. The stage of the implementation of the educational process (the main one) can be considered as a relatively isolated system, which includes important interrelated elements: setting and explaining the goals and objectives of the forthcoming activity; interaction of teachers and students; use of the planned methods, means and forms of the educational process; creation of favorable conditions; implementation of various measures to stimulate the activity of schoolchildren; The effectiveness of the process depends on how well these elements are related, whether their orientation and practical implementation of the common goal and each other are contrary to them. So, for example, during pedagogical interaction operational pedagogical control is called to play a stimulating role. However, if its focus, scope, purpose are not subject to the overall goal and direction of the process, do not take into account many other specific circumstances, control from the stimulus can become a brake.

An important role at the stage of implementation of the educational process is played by feedbacks that serve as the basis for making operational management decisions. Feedback - the basis for quality management of the process, its development and strengthening, each teacher must prioritize. Only relying on it, it is possible to find a rational ratio of pedagogical management and self-management by its activity on the part of the educated. In this regard, let us recall once again that the system of the educational process is largely a self-regulating system, since the people employed in it have their own will and freedom of choice. Operative feedback during the educational process contributes to the timely introduction of corrective amendments that give pedagogical interaction the necessary flexibility.

The cycle of the educational process ends with the stage of analysis of the achieved results. Why is this necessary? Why is it important to once again carefully analyze the course and results of the educational process after its completion? The answer is obvious - in order not to repeat the mistakes that inevitably arise in any, even very well-organized process in the future, in order to take into account the ineffective aspects of the previous one in the next cycle. Analyzing - we study. The teacher grows who benefits from mistakes made, so exacting analysis and self-analysis are the right way to the heights of pedagogical skill.

It is especially important to understand the reasons for the incomplete correspondence of the course and results of the process to the original plan, to determine where, how and why the errors occurred. Practice confirms that the most errors occur when the teacher ignores the diagnostics and forecasting process and works "in the dark", hoping to achieve a positive effect "to the touch". In addition to disappointments, dissatisfaction, loss of time and interest, this process can not be given to students.

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