Strategies for Activity Learning
In order to develop key competencies and methane skills, innovative approaches to learning are needed, among which the strategies of "learning by doing" or activity learning. The idea of learning through action action learning - became known all over the world already in 1971, right after the publication of Mike Pedler's article "Forming Effective Managers". Action learning strategies based on the philosophy of R. Revan, who derived the survival formula for the organization in a dynamic market:
speed of training = speed changes = survival
The learning speed should be no less than the rate of change, the result of training is considered as a product that has a price. Training is built on the growth of experience in problem solving. In order to increase the speed, it is required to teach the teachers to put the "correct" questions, answers to which help to acquire research and expert experience. At the same time, the answers to questions should be coordinated with the planning and implementation of real individual and collective actions.
In education, its "cultural aspect" is important. The main goal of such training is behavioral changes of specialists, development of their ability to change. In addition, the feature of learning the action is that they solve not only their own, but also other people's problems, i.e. there is learning through participation, learners learn from the experience of others' behavior.
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Activity training involves simultaneously developing the personality and educational organization through the interaction of people in small groups (up to seven people) who are looking for solutions to existing challenges or problems and implementing the necessary changes. However, practice shows that learning by action is inhibited in practice when it comes to, for example, development
communicative competence of the teacher. As the importance of such competence increases in the educational organization, the need for good specialists, coaches, and game technicians increases, and the head of the educational institution increasingly comes to the conclusion that it is easiest and less costly to conduct in-house training in one's own team (at a pedagogical board or in a specially organized time, for example during the holidays), involving a professional trainer or a specialist with intensive technology to work.
The pedagogical strategy of "learning by acting", despite its attractiveness and undeniable effectiveness, is often used in homeopathic doses for many reasons:
- the lack of competence of most teachers in the introduction of intensive technologies;
- insufficient regulations in the learning process for group and small group activities;
- since instruction in action is based on the diagnosis, analysis, allocation and ranking of problems that have not only personal but also social significance, so far people who are unable to change themselves can not have a significant impact on others and can not change the world around them ;
- an important condition for such training is the system of interactive interaction or "formula of solidarity" and participative style, the style of universal involvement in the processes of joint activities and collective decision making, which is not yet popular with teachers because of lack of interactive competence;
- learning by doing requires asking questions in a risk and uncertainty environment, when none of the trainees know what to do next, and the undeveloped communicative competence of the participants in the learning process does not allow making this process effective;
- the synergistic effect of learning by acting is possible only in the context of cooperation and partnerships, common goals, motivation and ownership of techniques and technologies of collective decision-making;
- the main difference between learning by doing is that learners begin to learn from each other only when they discover that no one in the group knows the answer to the questions posed and therefore they should only find it by common efforts.
Many modern programs and teaching methods in schools, colleges and universities include a variety of situations, role plays, exercises, experiments and creative projective tasks. It is practical exercises built on intensive technologies that enable trainees to pass from passive consumption of information to active participation in the process of cognition. The program of activity learning, built on intensive gaming technologies, changes the principle of "sit down and read it/look at it". on "get up, change places in the team, do it and really learn". I heard and forgot. I saw and remembered. I did it and realized. " This famous saying, which is attributed to Confucius, is often cited in support of the value of learning by modeling professional activity. There is a grain of truth in this statement, but according to the results of modern studies of learning processes, a different formulation is more accurate: "I'll sort it out best if I see, hear and do." After a repetition of actions produces a skill. Skill is a system of actions that can be applied in many types of situations, gradually becoming a meta-training.
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Ultimately, activity learning is not just an understanding of principles, concepts, methods and approaches, but the ability to memorize what has been learned and apply it to practice. When learning through action, small groups work on complex issues in the current activity or set the task of throwing a "fresh look" on unfamiliar problems. It is also advisable to reinforce intensive technologies with discussions, monitoring, observation, feedback, in order to integrate the whole set of theoretical and behavioral components into the repertoire of behavioral and professional techniques used in interaction in the learning process.
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