Structural and functional analysis of the content of the lesson's teaching material. Defining Lesson Objectives
But the view P. B. Mountains, structural and functional analysis - is an in-depth analysis of the contents of the lesson's educational material.
For this purpose, the standard, the program, the training manual are analyzed, the necessary material is selected from scientific publications, educational and methodological literature. This allows you to develop the main content of the lesson, highlight the structural components in it, predict the results of the training, formulate the objectives of the lesson, select the most effective methods and tools, and organize cognitive activities of students.
Structural analysis makes it possible to separate the main from the secondary, to divide the contents of the educational material into structural components: theoretical material, main and non-principal facts, theoretical conclusions, generalizations, value points. At the same time, the content of the course "Social Studies" (11th grade), its integrative character requires the use of facts not only for illustration, but also for a deeper understanding of the processes, phenomena of the past and the present, the assimilation of the theoretical content of the course, conclusions and generalizations. It is important for the teacher to find the optimal combination of factual and theoretical material in order to form knowledge, ways of activity, values of students.
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A goal is an anticipated, planned (mentally or verbally) result of an activity to transform an object. In pedagogical activity, the student's activity serves as the object of transformation, and the result is the level of education, development and upbringing of students.
The purpose of the lesson is specific (it indicates the means to achieve it) and translates it into specific didactic tasks. To achieve the goal of the lesson, it is necessary to solve three main didactic tasks: to update the previous knowledge, skills and skills directly related to the topic of the lesson; to form new concepts and ways of action for students; to organize the application of knowledge and experience of students with the aim of developing new educational and cognitive skills and skills, new experience of cognitive activity.
The embodiment of didactic tasks to achieve the objectives of the lesson finds concrete expression in the methodology of teaching social science. When formulating the educational, educational and developmental goals of the lesson, it is important to determine how the expected result will be achieved. The teacher can use a certain algorithm of actions, allowing to come to the planned result through certain steps.
Formation of basic concepts, leading ideas, theories in the study of the course "social studies"
The course of social studies in the formation of students' knowledge occupies a special place. This is due to the objectives of the course, its content, features. The course content is theoretical, integrated, systematized and generalizing. This predetermines the teacher's special role in the formation of theoretical knowledge, including facts, scientific concepts, ideas, theoretical positions, principles, concepts, theories, ideas, values, laws presented in a specific system.
As noted by philosophers, the concept is a form of thinking, the result of generalization, conducted on the totality of features inherent in this class of objects (VA Kanke). The concept is one of the logical forms of thinking as opposed to judgment and inference, which consist of concepts. Judgment is a thought, not only correlated with a certain situation, but also an affirmation or denial of the existence of this situation in reality. Judgment is the connection of concepts. Inference is the derivation of new knowledge. Inference implies proof, in the process of which the legitimacy of the emergence of a new thought is justified by other thoughts. Judgment, inference, proof as the three forms of rational cognition in their unity form some integrity that participates in the development of theoretical thinking and contributes to the formation of theoretical knowledge about man and society. The course "Social Studies", including information from several sciences, is saturated with scientific concepts. They represent a generalized knowledge reflecting the essential properties of objects or phenomena in the student's thinking.
The process of concept formation is a psychological phenomenon. This process, as Vygotsky noted, requires the development of arbitrary thinking, logical memory, abstraction, comparison and distinction. These complex mental processes can not simply be memory, they are simply memorized and learned, stressed Vygotsky. Scientific concepts can arise only on the basis of lower and elementary types of generalizations.
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All concepts can be classified according to the main content lines of the standard. The main way of the formation of concepts is learning, while the content is the leading one. A distinctive feature of all concepts is their complexity, for most of them are abstractions of a high order. All concepts of the course can be classified as historical (politics, chivalry, etc.), philosophical (freedom, values, cognition, etc.), sociological (social structure, social roles, social composition, nations, etc.), political (politics, power , political system, etc.), economic (economy, market, competition, etc.), culturological (culture, ethics, counterculture, ethics, etc.). Each of these concepts is characterized by volume and content, includes significant and non-essential characteristics, has a complex structure and can be realized in connection with other concepts.
There are several approaches to the classification of concepts. They can be conditionally grouped for several reasons: by degree of generalization (private, general and universal); on the unity of content (taking into account interdisciplinary and intra-academic relations); the degree of their fame for students (known and unknown). Universal and general concepts are formed on the basis of gradual deepening of the content of concepts in the system of lessons (vertical slice), private, individual - in one lesson (horizontal slice).
The concepts of the course can be divided into central (for example, people, society, civilization, culture), basic (for example, economic systems, social status, rule of law, spiritual values) and supporting (for example, myths of antiquity, classical slavery, peasant community , property, state apparatus, suffrage), which are saturated and enriched in the study of basic concepts. The concepts of a high degree of generalization have a complex structure, which includes less general concepts. A hierarchy of concepts, a system of abstractions (for example, the political system of society) that calls for theoretical generalizations, the selection of essential features, the derivation of definitions of concepts, their interrelations and interdependencies is formed.
Logical ways of concept formation - inductive and deductive. The latter is most applicable when forming the knowledge of graduates.
A great role in the assimilation of concepts is played by facts that facilitate the assimilation and comprehension of theoretical material. The fact is knowledge, the reliability of which is proved. Through the generalization and systematization of facts, concrete representations, concepts, knowledge of social reality occurs. Therefore, selection, grouping of facts, and their interpretation are very important. an explanation, a comprehension of the theoretical content hidden in the facts, a summation under the concept. Facts are divided into major (significant) and non-principal (non-essential). There are three types of social facts: actions, actions of people, individuals or large social groups; products of human activity (material and spiritual); verbal (verbal) actions: opinions, assessments, judgments.
As A.Yu. Lazebnikova notes, when studying the course topics it is expedient to allocate blocks of knowledge that include certain components - facts, theory, value orientations.
The assimilation of concepts can occur at different levels: knowledge of the term, knowledge of the essential features in their specific relationship, knowledge of the definitions of concepts, their detailed characteristics. At the same time, deepening, concretization and enrichment of the content of concepts, taking into account the multivaluedness of their definitions, interpretations and interpretations are of no small importance.
Ideas, theories can be assimilated taking into account the initial familiarization at the level of general representation (for example, the civil society of G. Hegel); on the basis of system-logical comprehension with the isolation of the leading elements and the identification of connections between them (for example, the Marxist theory of formations, the theory of local civilizations); on the theoretical-conceptual level, suggesting the comprehension of theory, the doctrine as an integrity based on the leading paradigm (for example, economic theory).
In the formation of concepts (the classification of PV Gora), methods of theoretical study of the material (explanation, reasoning, heuristic conversation, proof, comparative and generalizing characteristics, drawing up detailed plans, theses, logical schemes, tables, the use of memos, etc.), as well as methods of mental activity (analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization, comparison, etc.). This allows us to more effectively implement the various functions of knowledge: axiological (value), cognitive, indicative, diagnostic, regulatory and practical.
Conditionally, we can distinguish the main stages of the formation of concepts:
• reliance on knowledge of students;
• Clarification of the structure of the concept, its internal connections, attributes;
• the introduction of a scientific definition of the concept;
• specification of the features of the concept, taking into account new information, their deepening;
• establishing the connection of this concept with others previously learned;
• Enrichment of the concept at a new theoretical level, its more complete definition, the establishment of new links with other concepts;
• the operation of the concept.
The sequence of stages of the formation of concepts varies depending on the chosen logical path (inductive or deductive).
The most successful concepts are formed when the didactic principles of the formation of knowledge are observed, targeted selection of actual and theoretical material, stage-by-stage formation of concepts, their concretization, enrichment and deepening, targeted systematization, selection of methodological methods and means, implementation of intersubject and intra- at various levels of cognitive activity. This allows you to develop the cognitive activity of students, apply your knowledge independently, use a variety of sources of knowledge, form of the lesson, innovative technologies.
The process of forming concepts, theories, ideas, principles will be more successful if the teacher organizes the application and actualization of theoretical knowledge, operates with them, uses various methods of cognitive activity in order to cognize the phenomena of social life. In the opinion of LN Bogolyubov, the application of theoretical knowledge is their use as an instrument for the cognition of new phenomena, events, processes, for a deeper understanding of what was previously studied. The theoretical knowledge used in the study of a phenomenon can serve as a function of explaining the causes, the essence of the phenomenon, and also the methodological function, the function of determining the ways and means for further studying phenomena. On the basis of theoretical positions, tasks and directions for further study of the object are determined, the essential facts are separated from the nonessential ones, the most general explanation of the theory, principles, laws, concepts, etc. is given. LN Bogolyubov refers to objects whose study in the school course requires the application of theoretical knowledge, and gives their classification: according to their place in the life of society (phenomena, events, processes of economic, political, spiritual life, social order, etc.) ; in place and the way they are reflected in the knowledge system (facts and laws of science, concepts, etc.);
by the source of information about them (events and phenomena described in the textbook, current events and phenomena, covered by the media, etc.).
Among effective modern methods of concept formation, we can distinguish: "chamomile", brainstorming, composing clusters, "pyramid".
The effectiveness of the application of knowledge depends on their formation (depth, volume, systemic, etc.), the ability to operate them, the organization of independent cognitive activity of students, allowing to consider phenomena in their development, in interrelationships, to clarify cause-effect relations, to update theoretical knowledge . Knowledge updating - reproduction of the received knowledge, skills, their use, i.e. translate them into actual action. This leads to a change in knowledge in terms of quality, a higher degree of generalization, inclusion in the theoretical system, the conscious application of the principles of knowledge of social phenomena by students. The ability to apply knowledge, according to LN Bogolyubov, is the possession of a complex system of mental and practical actions necessary for independent orientation in social reality.
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