Structure of mastering, Basic conditions for effective...

Structure of assimilation

American psychologist Jerome Bruner suggested considering the assimilation as three simultaneous processes:

- getting new information;

- transformation (transformation), adaptation of information to solving problems;

- check and control.

A more detailed classification of the components of assimilation was given earlier by the Soviet psychologist ND Levitov. As components of assimilation, he singled out:

- students' positive attitude;

- the process of direct sensory acquaintance with the material;

- thinking as a process of active processing of the received material;

- the process of storing and saving received and processed information.

From the standpoint of the specific features of the assimilation identified above, the reproduction or presentation of the learned, as well as the use in practice, should be added to Levitov's scheme.

In addition, it can not be overlooked that the process of assimilation can effectively go not only in conditions of the "positive attitude of students" to the studied. Everyone knows from experience that often the assimilation takes place against a background of powerful negative motivation. We do not effectively absorb the hole, either, to which we not only do not have a positive attitude, but, rather, vice versa, a clearly negative attitude.

Assimilation and Emotion

The statement that emotions have a significant effect on the effectiveness of assimilation, it is unlikely that anyone will raise objections. This is perceived as a known fact. The human brain is little like a camera, tape recorder or computer, our assimilation is very subjective, and therefore the role of our emotions in mastering is difficult to overestimate. But what emotions contribute and which impede the assimilation?

In order to answer this question, a classification of emotions is required. Let's take two extremely simple dichotomous classifications of emotions: strong/weak and positive/negative.

The well-known Soviet psychologist Pavel Petrovich Blonsky conducted a simple experiment that allowed him to obtain objective answers, as the author thought, to both questions. He proposed to the first-year students of the Pedagogical Institute the task of describing any (the first thing that came to mind) event that happened to them before entering the institute. As a result, P. P. Blonsky received 224 essays. An analysis of the works showed that each student wrote about episodes colored with strong emotions. Thus, an empirical confirmation was obtained that our memory better stores everything colored with strong vivid emotions and omits monotonous and monotonous.

In addition, most of the works described events associated with severe experiences and negative emotions. According to P. P. Blonsky, this circumstance indicates that memory better retains strong negative experiences, and that which is associated with positive ones is preserved and reproduced worse.

As we know, the opposite was claimed by Freud. According to his teaching, everything that is connected with positive emotions is relatively firmly settled in the mind, and negative experiences are involuntarily forced into the subconscious sphere. Thus, people tend to forget the unpleasant and remember the pleasant, which protects the body from severe painful experiences.

In other studies, as well as the early 20th century, it was shown that people's ability to reproduce the emotional states they experienced was very individual. Studying these issues, the famous French psychologist T. Ribot (1839-1916), on this basis identified three categories of people:

- not able to repeat the extinct emotion;

- able to survive the emotion, but in a very weak degree (the most common type);

- people who easily evoke previous feelings (this is a relatively rare gift, about artistic natures, endowed with a rich imagination).

These data, obtained in the early XX century, were subjected to a serious audit in the 1960s and 1970s. This happened as a result of research by physiologists, who revealed the chemical background of these processes. In the course of the research, monoaminergic brain systems were found. The functioning of these structures in the central nervous system involves the synthesis of biogenic amines, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, histamine, and others. Brain studies conducted in the 1960s, Swedish scientists have identified in the brain of animals the location of clusters of nerve cells containing monoaminergic neurons.

Serotonin and norepinephrine play a particularly important role in the functioning of the mechanism of emotion. In the experiments of Soviet biochemists EA Gromova and TP Semenova, it was revealed that the "turn-off" in the brain of the rats of centers producing either serotonin or norepinephrine, significantly changes the ability of animals to learn. If serotonin is excluded, then the rats do not develop a reflex to positive reinforcement (although negative stimuli still act), and if norepinephrine is excluded, rats can not learn to react to negative reinforcement (avoiding electric shocks). Thus, it was found that training and memory in animals are closely related to the level of serotonin and norepinephrine in brain cells. Serotonin improves memory for positive emotions, norepinephrine - for negative emotions. These neurotransmitters associate emotions with memory.

Research psychologist MB Zykov, a member of the group that worked under the guidance of EA Gromova, showed that for successful learning requires an optimal level of emotional stress. Too strong and too weak emotions turn out to be harmful in this case. In these studies MB Zykov 23 archers from the highest category participated, responding to the test developed by MB Zykov, the sporelists showed the best results during the international competitions.

In parallel, the content of biogenic amines in the blood of athletes was estimated. During the competition, it was significantly increased, which confirmed the fact that the athletes were not only in good sports form, but also that their emotional tension was optimal.

ND Levitov's classification includes so many structural elements of assimilation as the stages or stages of learning activity.

The stages of assimilation. All researchers emphasize the heterogeneity of assimilation, noting that it includes a number of components, phases or stages. SL Rubinshtein distinguished the following stages of assimilation:

- a primary acquaintance with the material, or its perception in the broadest sense of the word;

- comprehension;

- special work on fixing;

- possession of the material (the ability to operate them in different conditions, applying it in practice).

This scheme is a general learning strategy. It describes the externally observed context of assimilation.

If we return to the task of highlighting the stages of assimilation, then their number can be limited by the following minimal set:

- Perception;

- understanding;

- modification;

- anchoring;

- play and use.

The main characteristics of assimilation. The main characteristics of assimilation can be classified as:

- the ease of acquiring and associating a new experience;

- the completeness and systemic nature of the assimilated;

- ease of modification of the assimilated;

- strength;

- Ability to transfer;

- the ease of updating;

- ease of presentation and application.

Ease of acquiring and associating new experiences. The ability to acquire and associate new experiences is different and is determined by a number of factors. In psychological research, many determinants of acquiring a new experience are revealed. For example, it has been repeatedly proved that the ease of acquiring and associating a new experience depends on the age and individual characteristics (cognitive abilities, personal characteristics, etc.), it is largely conditioned by the individual's past experience, the degree of his possession of this content.

In the psychology of creativity, this property is described in terms of hyper- or hypersensitivity (the ability to see problems where others do not notice any complexities and contradictions).

Completeness and systemic nature of the assimilated. The completeness and systemic nature of the assimilated is an important characteristic of assimilation. These parameters are directly related to mastering as the main result of learning activity.

The ease of modifying the assimilated. Often the assimilated can become so, provided that it is modified and thus conjugated, is associated with the subject's previous experience.

Strength. Strength is traditionally regarded as one of the key characteristics of assimilation. It largely depends on the cognitive abilities of the student, his personal characteristics, his motivation for mastering this material.

Ability to transfer. The ability to widely apply the acquired experience, going beyond the context of the context in which it was acquired - is one of the important tasks of education and upbringing. So, for example, teachers who teach a child to mathematics or grammar rules expect that his experience will be used later and beyond mathematics and language. Similarly, the teachers of the art cycle disciplines, emphasizing the aesthetic development of the personality by the means of art, hope that the experience gained in the artistic activity will be transformed into students and will find application in different activities.

At the same time, in education, the opposite is often observed. Many people hardly endure the experience gained in one type of activity in other spheres of their life activity. In psychology, this phenomenon is intensively studied within the psychology of the intellect, where the problem of "thinking in context" is discussed. (J. Piaget, R. Sternberg, and others).

The ease of actualization. Specialists in the field of the psychology of thinking and creativity, who devoted much attention to studying the problems of the dependence of the ability to solve new problems on the wealth and diversity of the individual's past experience, came to the conclusion that in this activity so much knowledge, how much skill and ability to actualize. Advantages in activities (solving new problems), and often in verbal answers (for example, in the exam) are not for those with more memory, but for those who can quickly extract the necessary information from memory.

As shown by special studies, the ability to actualize the experience obtained depends on many factors, including, along with individual and age-specific features, ways of perceiving this experience (D. Berry, D. Broadbent).

Easiness of presentation and application. The mastership should be easily reproduced, otherwise the fact of its existence is unprovable. Speaking of this, we must remember - special studies show that for verbal answers and the application of what is learned in practice, different knowledge is required. They differ in their origin. Verbal answers require experience learned in the course of verbal learning, for practical actions - experience learned at an intuitive level. Verbal knowledge is more subject to forgetting than practical knowledge, assimilated on an intuitive level.

Basic conditions for effective assimilation

The following basic conditions for assimilation can be assigned:

- openness to new experiences;

- pronounced search activity;

- motivational attitude;

- the ability to make right judgments and conclusions on the basis of their contacts with reality;

- the ability to assimilate a new experience;

- the ability to predict;

- good memory, possession of meannimic methods;

- the ability to modify and restructure the experience;

- Ability to verbal presentation of the experience;

is the ability to apply what is learned in practice.

The presented statements hardly need explanations. Probably, this list can be continued.

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