Structure of pedagogical activity
For a deeper understanding of the essence of pedagogical activity, in addition to realizing specific features, it is necessary to turn to an analysis of its structure (structure). The psychological model of any activity is a unity of purpose, motives, actions (operations), result. In accordance with this, Markova developed a psychological model of pedagogical activity, which she regards as a "professional activity of the teacher," aimed at solving the tasks of teaching and/Education and includes the following components:
1. Setting the teacher's goals and objectives.
2. The choice and application of means of influence on students.
3. Monitoring and evaluation of their pedagogical influences (self-analysis).Along with the accepted in psychology understanding of the activity as a multi-level system, the components of which are the goal, motives, actions and result, the approach of isolating its components as relatively independent functional activities of the teacher is applied to pedagogical activity.
H. V. Kuzmina singled out three main components in the structure of pedagogical activity: constructive, organizational and communicative. These types of pedagogical activity are related to the search for optimal ways of solving pedagogical problems. However, the author notes that an important component of the teacher's work is not only the solution of problems, but also the prevention of possible conflict situations. In connection with this, the components of the pedagogical activity of the shiu are added, such as the Gnostic and the design. Successful implementation of these functional types of pedagogical activity requires appropriate abilities, manifested in skills.
Constructive activity can be presented as constructive-content (selection and composition of educational material, planning and construction of the pedagogical process), constructive-operational (planning their actions and actions of students ) and constructive-material (designing the educational-material base of the pedagogical process).
Organizational activity involves the implementation of a system of actions aimed at including students in various activities, creating a team and organizing joint activities.
Communicative activities is aimed at establishing pedagogically appropriate pedagogical relations with pupils, other school teachers, representatives of the public, parents.
Gnostic and design activity involves forecasting, designing, anticipating options for upcoming activities and communication based on scientific, theoretical comprehension of each pedagogical phenomenon.
A. I. Shcherbakov examines the structure of pedagogical activity through its functions (information, development, orientation, mobilization, research).
In the first place, he puts information function as the starting point of all educational work. The essence of it is reduced to the free possession of educational material, methods and methods of teaching it, as well as the art of oral speech, "feedback" and correction of students' knowledge.
Developmental pedagogical activity reflects the unity of teaching, upbringing and development, provides management of perceptual, intellectual, emotional, volitional and other components of students' activities.
Orientation function determines the content of students' values in the natural and social environment.
The mobilizing function is manifested in the activity of the teacher, aimed at updating the knowledge and life experiences of students to form cognitive independence.
The research (gnostic) pedagogical activity requires the teacher to have a scientific approach to pedagogical phenomena, the ability to put forward a hypothesis, to design and conduct a simple pedagogical experiment, to analyze their own experience and the experience of others.
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