As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:


• the ratio of objective and subjective reality;

• what psychology is like as a science;

be able to

• analyze modern personality-oriented directions;


• The skills of practical application of psychology.

Basic forms of the psyche

Each science has its own complex, a set of categories. Psychological science also has a categorical apparatus.

Psyche is the highest form of interconnection of living beings with the objective world. This is the product and condition of the signal interaction of a living system (a living being) and its environment. For people, the psyche is in the form of phenomena of the subjective world of man: sensations, perceptions, ideas, thoughts, feelings. The emergence of the psyche is associated with the development of life, with the complication of the forms of interaction of living beings with the environment. During the evolution of animals a special organ of the psyche was formed - the nervous system, and later - its higher brain department. The human psyche developed in the process of social communication, work, in indissoluble connection with the development of the world. The idea that consciousness is produced by the brain, of course, receives confirmation. It is based on a large number of observations in clinical and experimental neuroscience and psychiatry that indicate a close connection between various aspects of consciousness and the physiological or pathological processes in the brain, such as trauma, tumor or infection. For example, brain contusion or oxygen deficiency can lead to loss of consciousness. Tumor or trauma of the temporal lobe entails other distortions of conscious processes. Infectious brain diseases or the use of certain drugs with psychoactive properties (hypnotics, stimulants or psychedelics) also contribute to the characteristic changes in consciousness. These observations undoubtedly demonstrate the existence of a close connection between consciousness and the brain, but they do not necessarily prove that consciousness is a product of the brain.

Criticizing the substitution of psychology with physiology, the United States philosopher SL Frank wrote: "The beautiful notation" psychology "- the doctrine of the soul was simply illegally kidnapped and used as a title for a completely different scientific field; it is stolen so thoroughly that when you are now thinking about the nature of the soul, the world of the inner reality of human life as such, then you are engaged in a business that is destined to remain anonymous or for which you have to come up with some new designation. And even if we reconcile ourselves to the newest, distorted sense of this word, we must admit that at least three quarters of empirical psychology and even more of the so-called "experimental psychology" is not pure psychology, but either psycho-physics and psycho-physiology, or ... the study of phenomena, although not physical, but at the same time not psychological. "

Basic concepts

Psychology includes the following four blocks of basic concepts.

1. Mental processes. This concept means that modern psychology considers psychic phenomena not as something originally given in ready-made form, but as something forming, developing, as a dynamic process that generates certain results in the form of images, feelings, thoughts, etc. The mental state indicates the stability of the findings of the psyche of the individual, their permanence and repeatability in the structure of the personality.

2. Mental conditions vivacity or depression, efficiency or fatigue, calmness or irritability, etc. This concept is used for a conditional release in the psyche of an individual of statistical quality, in contrast to the concept of "mental processes" that characterize the dynamic moments of the psyche.

3. Mental properties of a person - a general orientation to certain life goals, temperament, character, abilities inherent in a person for a long period of his life, for example diligence, sociability, etc. .

4. Mental neoplasms - acquired over a lifetime of knowledge, skills, and skills that are the result of the activity of the individual.

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