Structure of the team - Pedagogy

Team Structure

Children's collective initially has a formal (formal) structure, usually given by adults, for example, they recruit children into the school class, into the sports section, the circle, the detachment in the camp, etc. In one group there are children who meet certain criteria for selection: by age, physical data necessary for sports; The level of training that meets the requirements of a specialized class, etc. The formal structure corresponds to those functions that are called upon to fulfill, and determines the conditions for the activity of the collective (the number of children, equipment of premises, etc.), as well as the position of the adult (teacher, mentor, trainer, educator, etc.). Informal (informal) structure arises on the basis of interpersonal relations, developing in the team, in accordance with the interests of the pupils. In the collective informal groups are formed in accordance with the interests of the pupils. Within the formal structure, small contact groups are formed on the basis of common interests, sympathies, attachments. In this regard, one of the most important pedagogical tasks arises - the formation of humanistic norms of relations in a children's collective.

Children's collective develops and develops in the process of joint activity and communication of its members, between which a system of interpersonal, business and emotional-psychological relationships emerges. These relations form a unique field of the collective, manifested in public opinion, value orientations, moral principles, psychological climate. The teacher sets the standards of behavior, the requirements set by the educational institution, demonstrates the patterns that need to be oriented. However, to achieve their adoption by the children's collective is no small work. Often, actions and individual qualities of people are evaluated differently by children and teachers. This is due to various life experiences, ideas about the good and bad, the nature of the character. The effectiveness of educational work depends on how high the status of a teacher in a children's team, i.e. his position as a teacher, educator does not mean that his authority is unconditional. The teacher should be included in the relationship in the children's team, build professional communication with pupils, instilling humanistically oriented values. The approval or condemnation, support or rejection by the team of any points of view form public opinion, which is not only a characteristic of the collective, but is also used as one of the methods of pedagogical interaction. The method of public opinion is to attract pupils to the development and presentation to each other of socially and morally valuable demands, the formulation and implementation of socially and personally significant prospects, has a decisive influence on the effectiveness of encouragement and punishment. The purpose of the method of public opinion is to stimulate everything positive in the life of the collective and to overcome negative phenomena and trends.

One of the forms of external, behavioral expression of collective norms is tradition, which consolidates value relations.

Children occupy a certain place in the team depending on their natural data, level of development and social experience. They receive a certain status, assuming certain roles. In social psychology, the role is defined as a normatively given approved pattern of behavior expected from a person; status - this is the degree of its authority, position in the system of collective relations. It is obvious that the child is oriented in the norms set by adults ("So doing well, and so - badly"), and can meet the requirements. However, self-affirmation among peers is much more difficult. It is important that the teacher is able to establish favorable relationships in the children's team, thus ensuring the opportunity for each child to show their best qualities.

In the theory and practice of the formation of the children's collective, various points of view have developed in assessing the value of the collective in the education of the individual. Thus, RS Nemov proposes to abandon the dogma of the uniquely positive influence of the real collective on the individual. Other scientists consider the development of the individual and the collective as interdependent processes: "Activity of pupils, their level of physical and mental development, their capabilities and abilities determine the educational strength and influence of the collective." In the opinion of MI Rozhkov and LV Bayborodova, educational work assumes the idea of ​​the interaction of the child and the collective as a bilateral process: the identification of the child in the team and its isolation in the collective ("to be with all" and "to remain oneself" ;). In fact, in the pedagogical process, the children's collective is important as a necessary means of education, thanks to which it is possible to teach the child to interact with other people, to build relationships. Collective livelihoods open up opportunities for realizing personal potentials, acquiring social experience. It is in the process of developing group relations that conditions are formed under which the process of socialization of young people is more successful.

There are a large number of classifications of the collective. Allocate collectives:

- long-term, temporary, situational (short-term),

- educational, cognitive, labor and club;

- a collective of children's organizations: primary (class, group) and secondary (schools), etc.

Different groups create different relationships. It can be groups as cohesive or uncoordinated. The cohesion of groups also occurs on a different basis. As a result of integration, groups of social and antisocial orientation, different levels of activity, mediation can arise.

The groups differ from each other and such a sign as the dominant factor of cohesion. Factors may be the common interests of the group members, the desire to adapt in specific conditions, the authority of the leader, the existence of social norms accepted by all members of the group, etc. Depending on each factor, the group has its own development trajectory and the quality that distinguishes one cohesive group from the others.

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