System of axioms, Axioms of J. A. Komensky - Pedagogy. Theoretical pedagogy

Axiom system

The system of pedagogical axioms is an ordered set of basic propositions that have a clear and at the same time rather strict (unambiguous) meaning. The system of pedagogical axioms should include a relatively small number of axiomatic positions. The indicator of the completeness of the axiomatic system is the mutually overlapping use of primary pedagogical concepts. It is extremely important that the axioms do not contain contradictory judgments and the subsequent axioms do not deny what was asserted in the previous ones. It should also pay attention to the independence of axioms. The terms-synonyms or terms denoting homogeneous concepts should not be used. For example, the axioms should not have the concepts "high school", "high school", "professional school", " etc. The general relationship is expressed by one, rather abstract concept, for which the corresponding term is chosen.

The allocation of axioms, as already noted, is the result of the progress of scientific theory. However, science does not stop in its development, so there can not be once and for all established, the ultimate system of axioms. Always more advanced (more strict) levels of axiomatization are possible.

In axioms, universal values ​​of upbringing are expressed. To go through the centuries, social formations and political systems, the idea must be true, free and sublime, otherwise it dies along with its formation in accordance with the specific historical character of upbringing. This is the value of axiomatization. It makes you think about many difficult questions, for example, whether a person has changed over the past millenniums, whether education is subject to the same unshakable laws that have the same nature as the laws of nature, independent of social and economic systems.

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How much and what kind of evidence is needed for postulated statements to be recognized as axioms? There is no unambiguous answer to this question. Sometimes one testimony is enough, in another place dozens do not convince. Pedagogical axioms can be set out on one page and you can compose volumes from them. To emphasize the ancient origin of many pedagogical truths, let us turn to very old sources, among them the works of Confucius, Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch and other philosophers. Evidence of the truth of the provisions put forward in them is found in the writings of philosophers and educators of the New and Newest Times, in the daily school practice. Reading ancient books, it is difficult to get rid of the thought that for those who wrote them these provisions were self-evident, axiomatic. They are still sounding today at the beginning of the 21st century.

Examples of axiomatic are the following statements.

AXIOM 1. Spiritual development and physical development of a person are organically interconnected; it's a single process.

The formalized entry: Pg & Ugrave; Pf *** 0 "V®0 (Spiritual and physical development, achieved through education, is a single process for all trainees.)

In addition, boys are sent to the gym teacher, so that the strength of the body promotes correct thinking and would not have to be timid in war and other matters because of bodily flaws. "

What kind of upbringing? However, it is difficult to find better than that found from the most ancient times. For the body it is a gymnastic upbringing, and for the soul - a musical ". (Musical education is the study of literature, poetry, music. I.P. ).

"Yes, I noticed that those engaged only in gymnastics become rougher than they should be, and those who are engaged in muscular art alone are so soft that it does not adorn them."

"So, who best alternates gymnastic exercises with muscular art and adequately presents them to the soul, then we would be entitled to consider ones who have attained perfection."

"It was about women, and we decided that their natural inclinations should be developed in much the same way as the natural inclinations of men, and that they should do all male studies, both in war and in other everyday life" .

Therefore, a man without moral principles turns out to be the most wicked and savage being, the base in his instincts ... ".

AXIOM 2. Learning and knowledge gained are the main cause of human development.

Formalized entry: 0 & Ugrave; 3S®®P (Writing and systematized knowledge are the main reason for development for all students.)

"This is the main educational significance of the art of musik: it only penetrates more deeply into the soul and affects it more than anything else. Rhythm and harmony bring virtue, but it also makes a person noble ... Who in this area is brought up as it should, he will very acutely perceive various omissions, incompleteness or natural shortcomings. His irritation or, conversely, pleasure will be right, he will praise what is fine, and, having taken it into his own soul, will feed on him and he will become flawless, and he will correctly condemn and disgraceful (shameful) from a young age, earlier than he will be able to perceive a reasonable speech, when the time comes for such a speech, he will fall in love with her, realizing that she is peculiar to him in education. "

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Therefore, knowledge is not in impressions, but in conclusions about them, for, apparently, it is here that one can grasp the essence and truth, in the same place - no. "

"Who does not know the truth, but chases after opinions, that art of speech will, apparently, be ridiculous and incomprehensible".

"To have an opinion is to argue, and opinions are a verbal expression, but without the participation of a verb and addressed not to someone else, but to yourself, silently."

Scientific knowledge is a knowledge that leads to an understanding of the basis (s) for the necessity of the existence of a given thing. "

"The development of knowledge about an object leads to the emergence of the concept of an object: the concept of an object reveals its essential features."

Every reflection is a definition or proof. It is the proof that is sent from the known beginning and finds some completion in the form of a conclusion or conclusion. "

"Ethical virtues are achieved by education".

"There is only one good - knowledge and only one evil - ignorance" (Socrates).

AXIOM 3. Education prepares people for life.

The formalized entry: In W & Ugrave; D U (Education is the basis of practice for all students.)

The worst that the youth can learn is frivolity. For the latter generates those pleasures from which the vice is born (Democritus).

"Knowledge is fine and able to control a person in such a way that someone who knows good and bad will not be forced to do anything differently than knowledge dictates, and the mind is strong enough to help a person."

"After all, correct education and training induce good natural inclinations in man, and who they already had, thanks to such education they become even better, in general, and in the sense of transferring them to their offspring, which is observed in all living beings."

And I think we would say that from the upbringing in the end a very definite and expressed result depends: either the good or its opposite. "

But if good people become good not by nature, then they reach it by learning. "

"Yes, if his happy natural properties are appropriately developed by upbringing, he really becomes the shortest and most divine being."

But if a person is brought up not enough or not well, then this is the wildest creature that the earth gives birth to. "

There is nothing stronger than knowledge ... Knowledge is both justice, and discretion, and courage. "

Therefore, it is necessary, through education, to change the nature of man, teaching him the rules (virtues - I.P. ), justice and duty (Xun Tzu).

& "Parenting needs three things: in giving, science, exercise."

AXIOM 4. Exercises are a universal means of human development in all respects.

Formalized entry: O U (Exercise is the main development factor for all students.)

I say and argue that a person who wants to become worthy in any matter should from early age practice, then amuse himself, then seriously, in everything that this refers to. "

Even more surprising, however, is the situation with our knowledge: not only do we have some knowledge, but some we lose, and therefore we never are the same with regard to knowledge, is that The same fate of each type of knowledge separately. What is called exercise is due to nothing more than the loss of knowledge, and the exercise, forcing us to recall the forgotten again, preserves our knowledge so much that it seems to be the same. "

All good, noble skills can be developed in yourself by exercise, and especially morality. "

All abilities are divided into congenital, acquired skills and acquired through training (for example, the ability to art). And in order to have one of these abilities - those that are acquired by skill and understanding, preliminary exercises are necessary, and for other abilities and abilities to undergo such exercises are not necessary. "

Have you ever watched how people with natural abilities to account are receptive, one might say, to all sciences? Even those who understand very well, if they are trained in this and exercise, then at least they do not benefit from it for themselves, yet they become more receptive than they were before. "

In exercises, both the ability and the disadvantages of the (Cicero).

AXIOM 5. The most important driving force of learning is interest.

The formalized entry: And O W (Interest is the main learning factor for all students.)

"A free-born person no science should not learn slavishly."

Therefore, my friend, feed your children with your sciences, not forcibly, but playfully so that you can better observe the natural inclinations of each .

True, if a body violently forces to overcome difficulties, it does not become worse from this, but forcibly embedded into the thought of knowledge is fragile. "

AXIOM 6. Understanding and understanding knowledge is a condition for effective learning.

Formalized entry: P®®0 U (Understanding is the cause of successful learning for all students.)

The learning process develops according to the scheme: from the unclear, but more accessible, to the understandable and more meaningful ".

The alternation of questions and answers puts the subject in a much more understandable and accessible and concrete form. "

In the end it is necessary to remind the listeners about all that has been said in the main lines. "

Knowledge can not be carried away in a vessel, but involuntarily it is necessary, having paid the price, to take them into one's own soul, and, having learned something, leave either with damage for oneself or with advantage. "

All knowledge and all learning is based on some already existing knowledge. This becomes obvious when considering any study and teaching, for both the mathematical sciences and each of the other arts are acquired in this way. "

Meanwhile, all study passes through preliminary knowledge of all (prerequisites) or some: and learning through definitions, for the parts making up the definitions can be known in advance and they should be accessible, and the same can be said about studying through guidance

If you just learn and do not seek reflection, then this will be of little use. And if you just think and do not study, it will lead to doubt and impermanence (Confucius).

AXIOM 7. The personality of the teacher is the most important condition for learning.

Formalized entry: 0 U (Teacher is an important learning factor for all students.)

Honor your mother as a god. Honor your father as a god. Honor the teacher as God (Confucius).

The best education of young people is not in suggestion, but in the manifestation of what is implied to another. "

And then, when they send the children to the teachers, they tell the teacher to take more care about the good behavior of the children than about reading and writing or playing the cithara. "

If anyone teaches anything, does he convince himself of what he teaches or not? - Convinces better than anyone else.

But to eloquence should be treated as well as to any means of competition. After all, they (the teachers) gave their ability to the students, so that they used it in fairness. "

If people start to educate people who are not worthy of upbringing and use it not for their worth - what, tell me, thoughts and opinions come from them.

"Teachers, to whom children owe education, are more respectable than parents whom children owe only birth: some give us only life, and others give us a good life."

AXIOM 8. Hereditary deposits are a factor of human development.

Formalized entry: C P U (Ability is a development factor for all students.)

"A person endowed with abilities beyond the ordinary, one can communicate high and deep principles. But a person with a weak mind can not communicate high and deep principles (Confucius).

The ability to cognize everything is an innate quality of a person (Hsien-Tzu).

The ability to know is a natural gift through which knowledge is acquired, but it is not knowledge itself, just as the sun sees, having the ability to see (Late coins 4-3 centuries BC).

Indeed, in whom equally sharp intelligence, intelligence and memory, like this young man, are mostly impressionable and Norovists, they wear swiftly, like empty triremes, and are by nature more violent than courageous, and more balanced, those somehow languidly approach to the science, they are burdened by forgetfulness

AXIOM 9. Education is the formation of habits.

Formalized entry: В®®П У (Parenting is the reason for the formation of habits for all students.) The habit is achieved through education.)

The assimilation of the taught depends on the habits of the listener, what habits we have formed, and we demand such a statement, and what we say against the custom seems unsuitable, and because of the newness, it is more incomprehensible and alien, because the habitual is more understandable. " ;

Some do not perceive the taught, if stated mathematically, others - if they do not give examples, others require that the testimony of the poet be cited. And some want everything to be stated accurately, while others exact gravity or because they are not able to connect (one to another), or because they consider accuracy to be petty. "

"The teacher said:" By nature, all people are similar to each other, habits and education make people different from each other ... Only higher wisdom and extreme stupidity are unchangeable " (Xun Tzu).

Axioms of J. A. Komensky

Under the axioms of J. A. Komensky understands two things. In the first sense, these are innate ideas, imprinted in our brain. They are activated by education - the universal means of "waking the mind". If we learn to reason intelligently with an eight-year-old child about any part of philosophy, then we will hear a reasonable answer to everything, because the light of reason, if you know how to use it, is the measure of all things (Protagoras). In the second sense of the axiom for Comenius, the same as stated above - the truths taken without new evidence.

Examples:

Axiom 1. Neglect of upbringing is the death of people, families, states and the world.

Axiom 2. Families acquired in the family lead later to agonizing difficulties in schools, churches and public life.

Axiom 3. In general, it is necessary to educate those who others place their hopes, for example, children of the nobility, princes.

Axiom 4. The basis of good education is that all learn to understand how a person differs from an animal, what a good person differs from an evil person, a scientist from an unlearned, wise from and, finally, than the earthly life differs from the future, and the path leading to bliss, from the path leading to perdition.

Axiom 5. Education and training are a single, organically indivisible process.

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