The goals, principles of personality-oriented pedagogy and age patterns of children's development serve as the basis for determining the problems of education of young children. As such are:
• Ensuring the emotional well-being of children;
• involving children in the values of a healthy lifestyle;
• Creation of conditions for the development of communicative, cognitive, playful and other kinds of activity of the child;
• Support the initiative and creative expression of each child.
In accordance with the tasks set, the content of early childhood education is differentiated according to the following four areas in which a child develops:
• artistic and aesthetic .
Education in each of these spheres is built taking into account the age and individual characteristics of the pupil.
In pedagogy, there are methods aimed at studying the child, developing and approbating the content, forms and technologies of education, and pedagogical methods as ways to educate and educate children.
Research methods, used mainly for scientific purposes, is a general strategy, a common way of obtaining facts that is determined by the task and subject of research, as well as the theoretical views of the researcher. Research methods can be applied for practical purposes.
The main research methods of pedagogy of early age are:
• pedagogical experiment,
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• study documentation,
• analysis of the process and results of children's activities,
• Video shooting .
The observation method helps to get an overall picture of the behavior of the child and a group of children or record their individual behavioral manifestations. Observation can be hidden and included, continuous and selective, one-time (cut-off) and long (prolonged). This method allows you to explore the child in the natural conditions of life; It is indispensable both for the primary orientation in the problem and for obtaining preliminary information about the child. Observation is carried out by scientists and educators of kindergartens, which generalize their experience. These observations are carefully recorded, which subsequently makes up the material for analysis and general conclusions.
Pedagogical experiment - scientifically delivered experience in the field of education and upbringing, observation of the phenomenon under investigation in conditions created and controlled by the researcher. Pedagogical experiment can be both ascertaining and forming. In studies related to the definition of the new content of education, the development of new teaching methods, as well as the identification of the effectiveness of pedagogical methods and techniques already implemented in practice, a didactic experiment is widely used, which is aimed at proving the advantage of one program or method of teaching before others; the basic value in this case is an objective evaluation of its results. Pedagogical experiment is conducted in specially organized, but familiar for the child conditions. It requires special caution and tact in order to eliminate bias and ensure the objectivity of the study.
In order to solve some pedagogical problems, complex studies are being carried out by specialists in the field of psychology, sociologists, physiologists, pediatricians, defectologists, etc., who are involved in the scientific team.
Conversation with educators, parents enables the researcher to use their observations on the behavior and development of a child or group of children, to reveal valuable pedagogical experience and mistakes in upbringing. Conversations with children help determine their interests, features of speech, attitude to the environment, etc.
The method of questioning is widely used in pedagogy, as it is comparatively economical and gives the possibility of reaching a large group of people. The material obtained with its help is well formalized. The questioning can be conducted by teacher-researchers and teachers of children's institutions, practical psychologists, methodologists, heads of children's institutions, employees of education management bodies, etc. Using the questionnaire of parents, one can get information about the child and his family, learn about his features, habits, preferences, relationships with relatives, to identify parents' requests to a children's institution, their opportunities to help teachers. Questioning of educators can reveal their attitude to their own activities, requests to the leadership of the institution, the psychological climate in the group, etc.
The interview method complements the questionnaire and conversation. Interviews are usually conducted according to a pre-planned plan. The received answers are fixed and processed. Sometimes the survey is repeated at the same program at regular intervals in order to verify the reliability of the data obtained and to identify changes in the sphere under investigation.
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Study documentation is the study of plans, reports, methodological developments of children's institutions and individual educators, which provides material for characterizing organizational work, some methods of upbringing. Of great importance are records of observations of educators, if they are conducted systematically and skillfully, and diaries of child development.
The analysis of the process and the results of children's activities provides an opportunity to judge the individual characteristics of the child, his interests, preferences, emotional state, skills, etc.
The video shooting method has become increasingly common in recent years. It complements the methods of monitoring and studying documentation. Using video, you can get rich material about the behavior of children in different situations for the purpose of subsequent analysis by researchers. Some episodes from the life of children in the group, game situations, holidays, etc. can be demonstrated to children themselves for the solution of various pedagogical tasks (maintaining a positive self-awareness, forming a self-image, friendly relations in a group, learning, etc.). Video shooting is a good way to broadcast pedagogical experience to educators and parents.
Methods of education and training can be divided into the form of the influence of the teacher on the child.
Verbal methods - explanations, instructions, stories about the environment, etc. play an important role in the education of young children. The effectiveness of their work with kids depends on their accessibility to understanding, emotional expressiveness, imagery. In order for a word to influence a small child in the right way, it must be based on its sensory experience. Verbal methods must be combined with visual methods of upbringing and learning.
Visual methods include direct acquaintance of children with the surrounding natural and social world and showing them real objects, pictures, books, transparencies, etc. The visibility in learning should be based on all kinds of sensory experience of the child: sight, hearing, touch. The latter is especially important for teaching the youngest.
Practical methods. For a deeper understanding of reality, children need not only listen to the teacher, observe what he shows, but also practically act with objects, discovering their characteristic properties and features, figuring out the relationships and relationships, transforming them.
Direct impact methods include posing a particular practical task for the child (for example, collecting a pyramid, building a house from cubes, etc.), showing a sample way of action, help the adult in its implementation. The use of methods of direct influence is effective not only for the mastering of the subject by practical activity, but also in other spheres of his development-artistic-aesthetic, verbal, physical, social-personal. In this case, direct impact methods should not suppress the child's own activity, initiative and independence.
Method of indirect (indirect) pedagogical influence. In using it, the educator does not put any concrete task for children and does not directly determine the ways of solving it. He gives the child advice, encourages his actions, offers a choice of their options, creates conditions for self-education, organizing the material and material environment that stimulates different types of child activity. It is very important to combine the methods of direct and indirect influence in practical work with children of early age so that the former do not prevail over the latter. Methods of indirect impact are indispensable in the organization of creative activities of children - games, drawing, modeling, design, etc.
The method of problem education and training is aimed at stimulating cognitive activity, thinking, independence of the child. It provides children with the opportunity to find the means to solve a particular problem (for example, open a box with a secret, collect a typewriter from a designer, lay out a pattern from a mosaic, etc.). You can create a problem situation with the help of questions, puzzles, tasks, demonstrations of phenomena not yet understandable to the child (for example, magnet attraction of metal objects, coloring of water with different colors, etc.).
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