Technological approach and its features in the educational sphere
As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• about changes in the aims, content, structure of pedagogical education, the main directions of its development;
• about the technological approach in teaching, the concept of "pedagogical technology";
• the basics of pedagogical forecasting;
• Features of the application of technology in educational activities;
• the foundations of personally developing education;
be able to
• carry out an informed choice of educational technologies;
• apply educational technologies in teaching activities;
• basic pedagogical technologies;
• the basics of personal development of students.
Changes in the aims, content and structure of teacher education
Modern education is characterized by the emergence of a certain group of leading trends, pedagogical innovations, approaches, metaphors of pedagogical consciousness. We briefly formulate the main ones.
First of all, it is necessary to indicate the concept of personality development, expressing a general, sufficiently manifested trend towards developing educational models.
Other leading trends are the fundamentalization and humanitarization of education. Historically, these tendencies were designed to overcome the educational crisis that arose at the turn of the 1970s-1980s. The next emerging trend is the increasing use of the research (some authors call it search engine) model of education, the prototype of which was the model of problem learning.
Thus, at the present stage, the scientific community has come to realize that the transition to developmental learning, the implementation of research and search models means the formation of a creative paradigm of modern education. And, at last, the wide development of modern technologies, first of all computer, on a new level, updated a technological metaphor , the birth of which dates back to the 1960s.
In this chapter we will consider how the interaction of these trends, metaphors are projected onto the didactic level, reflected in practical developments.
Modern pedagogical education should ensure the teacher's preparation for effective professional activity in the context of new educational guidelines and concepts. The strategic goals of modernization of education are defined by such documents as the Federal Targeted Program for the Development of Education for 2011-2015, which determines the direction of the solution of the main task - improving the quality of education and the effectiveness of educational activities.
In the system of higher professional education, a transition to a two-level educational model (bachelor's, master's) in accordance with the Bologna agreements. Graduate School passed to GEF, which are the third generation of standards. One of the main features of the current standards is the implementation of a competence approach in teaching.
All these changes fully concern the system of pedagogical education. An important feature of the updated programs in the areas of teacher education is that they are developed on the basis of a competence approach, special attention is paid to the organization of practices and the development of tasks for the independent work of students.
The competence approach, as noted earlier, is aimed at the development of general cultural and professional competencies of future teachers through the solution of relevant tasks. Important changes have occurred in the general education system. It became a profile. The students were given the opportunity to choose one of the profiles, which provides in-depth study of certain subjects, the rest are studied at a basic level. The final attestation of school leavers is carried out in the form of the Unified State Exam (USE). The points received in the exam on compulsory and selected disciplines serve as a basis for admission to higher education institutions.
The main directions of the development of general education are formulated in the National Educational Initiative "Our New School". In the content plan, they are characterized by the need to solve the following problems:
1. The transition to new educational standards that contain requirements for what school programs should be, what results should be demonstrated by children, what conditions should be created in the school to achieve these results.
2. Development of a system for supporting talented children, creating a creative environment for identifying especially gifted children in every school.
3. Improvement of the teaching staff, attracting young talented people to the teaching profession.
4. Changing the school infrastructure.
5. Preservation and strengthening of health of schoolchildren.
6. Expansion of school autonomy.
In the face of these strategic tasks, the most important qualities of the individual should be "initiative, the ability to think creatively and find non-standard solutions, the ability to choose a professional path, the willingness to learn for life."
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