To solve psychological and pedagogical problems of interaction between participants in the educational process, the technology of contextual learning is recognized as the main one. Many researchers consider this learning technology to be a priority, especially in the context of transition to the competence paradigm of education. In accordance with the theory of contextual learning developed at A. Verbitsky's scientific and pedagogical school, it is contextual training in which the subject and social content of activity is modeled using all available means and forms of learning.
Context is a system of internal and external factors of human activity in a specific situation. The inner context is the totality of individual traits, attitudes, knowledge and experience of the trainee, and external - sociocultural, objective, spatio-temporal and other characteristics of the situation of action and deed. The basic unit of content of contextual learning is the situation. According to experts, in the theory of contextual learning three basic forms of education correspond to three teaching models: semiotic, imitative and social. A special role in the concept of contextual learning belongs to the concept of "professional context", which, according to A. A. Verbitsky, is a collection of objective tasks, organizational, technological forms and methods of activity, situations characteristic of a certain sphere of professional work.>
The essence of contextual learning, as is known, is to use as the main teaching procedure the modeling of the professional content (context) of the future professional activity of students. Immersion of trainees in the appropriate context in solving proposed tasks is designed to create in their minds the interrelationship of key concepts and technologies of the teacher's activity, facilitate the acquisition of practical modeling experience, develop students' psychological readiness to apply the received psychological and pedagogical knowledge in future practical activities.
The concept of character-contextual training according to A. A. Verbitsky presupposes, first of all, basic forms of activity, providing:
- academic activities of academic type (lessons, lectures, seminars, independent work);
- quasi-professional activities (business games, game forms of training, trainings);
- educational and professional activity (research work, production practice, diploma design).
As a transition from one basic form to another, various forms and technologies also appear:
- laboratory and practical exercises;
- simulation simulation;
- analysis of specific production and problem situations;
- playing situations in roles;
- special courses and special seminars;
- game design.
Thus, it is obvious that contextual learning is a sufficiently flexible technology that allows combining a whole complex of various technologies, methods and methods of teaching that ensure active and creative character of the learning activity of the trainees and providing different moments in the organization of training:>
- actualization of the previously studied theoretical material and its interpretation from new positions - from the perspective of problem solving
- ensuring the dynamism, attractiveness of learning activities for trainees due to the diversity of organizational forms of interaction between participants in the educational process;
- the need to create an atmosphere of intellectual tension, search, learning dialogue, creativity and pedagogical support, etc.
As practice shows, in contextual learning there are the following didactic methods, providing different degree of activity and independence of trainees:
- explanatory-illustrative method is used to explain concepts and technologies in solving professionally oriented problems, as well as to explain the features of professional situations in the context of which quasi-production problems are solved;
- the reproductive method is used in the early stages of solving problems of a given class according to the existing pattern, analogue, which helps to consolidate the knowledge, abilities and skills of students;
- method of problematic presentation , which is useful in solving problems aimed at the synthesis of systems for optimal control of interaction; when solving such problems the teacher first formulates the problem of obtaining the optimal control system in a given situation, then together with the trainees the options for constructing such a system and solving the problem (problems) are analyzed; while participants in the interaction in the educational process learn to compare different points of view, opinions and approaches, build a system of arguments, logical evidence, which forms a positive motivation for learners to use the available competencies;
- heuristic , or partial search method is used at a more advanced level of learning when participants interactions are already capable of solving complex problems of an integrated nature, including several topics or requiring any knowledge from other areas, other subjects of learning;
- The research method is useful at the final stage of training in solving problems of greater complexity, when it is necessary to find an optimal or more efficient method for solving them based on a thorough analysis of the proposed situation and the content of the task . In such integrated tasks, it is required to apply not only knowledge from several areas of training, but also to possess psychological and pedagogical competence in the theory and practice of interaction in the educational process.
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