Negotiation Technology - An Effective Strategy for Conflict Resolution with Collaborators
In pedagogical practice, the same methods of conflict resolution are applicable, as in a professional environment. This is primarily forceful suppression and negotiations. Force suppression (both moral and physical) occurs, as a rule, after the conflicting participants apply the strategy of rivalry. A stronger conflict subject maintains his position, forcing the opponent to submit to it and accept the demands of the strong side. In this case, the goal of only one side is fully achieved. The other party fulfills the requirements of the winners or acknowledges their mistakes through an apology.
A more effective way to resolve conflicts in the educational process are negotiations, which are a set of techniques aimed at finding mutually acceptable solutions for the opposing sides. Negotiations are also a process of finding joint solutions of two or more parties with different points of view on the same subject, different preferences and priorities. Here all the conflicting parties are aimed at achieving mutual interests and resolving the problem that caused the conflict. The initial conditions for negotiations are interdependence, incomplete antagonism or incomplete cooperation. To use the methods of negotiations, it is necessary to translate the participants' attitudes from emotional into rational channels. A prerequisite for successful negotiations is their thorough preparation. Before starting negotiations, it is necessary to gather information about the participants in the conflict, their interests and expectations and determine in advance which agreement should be reached for each of the parties.
In the modern literature, many negotiation techniques and special techniques are described that allow to normalize the relations of the conflicting parties. One of them is the proposed psychologist C. Osgood technique PRESN - consistent and reciprocal initiatives to reduce stress. This technique serves as an effective tool in reducing the tension among conflict actors in any of its forms (interpersonal, intergroup). The PRSP method rules are as follows:
- show the participants in the conflict some steps aimed at reconciliation, explaining their content and functional necessity;
- openly declare that one of the participants in every possible way seeks to stop an open conflict;
- fulfill all the promises made publicly
- In every way to encourage the opposing side to determine the concessions to which it is willing to go in exchange for concessions to the other party;
- in anticipation of concessions from the opponent, it is important to protect the reciprocity of relations.
Variational method is that partners are offered to discuss in advance the options for the agreement. At the same time, ideas about the possible arguments of the opposite side are formed, the arguments necessary for their refutation are selected, and a list of those requirements and provisions that can be abandoned for the sake of continuing the negotiations and principles that can not be compromised under any conditions are drawn up.
In practice, Integrative Negotiations, are more widely accepted when the assumption is made that there is at least one solution that satisfies all parties. These negotiations are preferable, since they promote long-term relations and cooperation, because the common interests of the parties are at stake, which should encourage them to unite. At the same time, emphasis is placed on existing points of contact and obtaining mutual benefits with a reasonable pooling of efforts. The effectiveness of such negotiations is impossible without the openness and sincerity of the parties, understanding the needs and requests of the other party, mutual trust and the desire to adhere to a flexible approach. This method is used in negotiations with an equal in rank and strength opponent. Each participant in the conflict situation takes the victory out of the negotiations. However, after such negotiations, there is sometimes rivalry or even enmity.
More promising tactics for negotiating are connected with the appearance of the method of principled negotiation, developed by the Harvard project on negotiations R. Fisher and U. Jüri. The method of principled negotiations consists in solving problems on the basis of their qualitative properties, i.e. proceeding from the essence of the matter, and not bargain over what one of the parties can or can not do. This method assumes that the parties to the conflict seek to find mutual benefit wherever possible, and where their interests do not coincide, one should insist on such a result, which would be justified by specific fair norms regardless of the will of either side. The method of principled negotiations means a rigid approach to the examination of the merits of the case, but provides for a soft approach to the relations between negotiators.
The method of negotiations, based on certain principles, is characterized by four basic rules:
1. Distinction between negotiators and the subject of negotiations.
2. Concentration on interests, not positions.
3. Development of mutually beneficial options.
4. Search for objective criteria.Methods of maintaining and developing cooperation It is known that it is difficult to resolve a conflict, especially when interacting in the educational process, so it is easier to use such an effective method of preventing conflict, parties. Usually, before the conflict begins, the parties are in neutral relations, cooperating with each other. It is very important not to destroy the existing cooperation of the parties, to support and strengthen the constructiveness of their mutual relations. For this, the teacher can use the following methods in class.
1. The consent method, , the essence of which is to involve the conflicting participant in practical activities; in creating conditions that exclude the contradiction of interests, form common interests.
2. The method of practical empathy, assuming a psychological "setting" to the participant in the conflict, entry in his position, understanding of his difficulties. In practice, this method is expressed in goodwill, the absence of unmotivated hostility and aggressiveness, the expression of sympathy and willingness to help the trainee.
3. The method of preserving the reputation of a partner. Any participant in the conflict is worthy of respect. Has the right to exist and his position, even if it does not coincide with the position of the instructor. In any case, the rules of interpersonal communication assume a respectful attitude to the participant in the interaction, regardless of age and status.
4. The method of complementarity, which consists in creating a situation where it is useful to use certain characteristics in the joint project, the features of the participant in the conflict that the instructor does not possess.
Developing and using these features, you can strengthen mutual relations and cooperation, avoid many conflicts and stay in the win.
5. The method of excluding social discrimination. This method is based on the inadmissibility of emphasizing the differences between the parties to the conflict, any superiority of one over the other.
6. The method of separation of merit. In the context of group activities it is advisable to common services (results) divided by all participants in the work, even if most of it belongs to someone alone. This method avoids envy, resentment and other negative factors surrounding and provoking conflict.
7. The method of psychological adjustment. In contrast to the method of practical empathy, it assumes a diverse, positive impact on the trainee, whose basis is to inform him in time about possible or forthcoming changes, discuss their consequences and .p.
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