Basic theoretical models of the educational environment
In the works of the United States psychologist VI Panova, the main models of the educational environment developed by United States scientists are systematized: "environmental-personal" (VA Yasvin, SD Deryabo), communicative-oriented (VV Rubtsov), anthropological & psychological (VI Slobodchikov), psychodactical (VP Lebedeva, VA Orlov, VA Yasvin) and the "ecopsychological" (VI Panov).
Ecological-personal the model of the educational environment was developed by VA Yasvin. In his statement, the term educational environment should be referred to as the "system of influences and conditions for the formation of a personality according to a given pattern, as well as the opportunities for its development contained in the social and spatial-object environment." In order for the educational environment to have a developing effect, it must be able to provide a set of opportunities for self-development of all subjects of the educational process (students and teachers). This complex, according to VA Levin, includes three structural components:
1) the space-object component - the premises for classes and ancillary services, the building as a whole, the adjacent territory, etc.
2) the social component - the nature of the relationship of all subjects of educational activity (students, teachers, parents, administrators, etc.);
3) Psychodactical component - the content and methods of teaching, conditioned by the psychological goals of building the educational process.
Communicatively-oriented the model of the educational environment was developed by V. V. Rubtsov. The educational environment is understood by them as a form of cooperation (communicative interaction), which creates special types of community between students and teachers, as well as between the students themselves. The starting point of this approach to the educational environment is the understanding that the necessary condition for the development of the child is his participation in joint activities, shared with the adult and/or with other participants in the educational process.
Q. V. Rubtsov defines the educational environment as a "... a developed polystructural system of direct and indirect educational and training influences that explicitly or implicitly present pedagogical attitudes of teachers that characterize the goals, objectives, methods, means and forms of the educational process in this school." Employees VV Rubtsov - NI Polivanov and IV Ermakova - identified the following structural components of the educational environment:
- the internal orientation of the school;
- the psychological climate;
- the socio-psychological structure of the team;
- the psychological organization of knowledge transfer;
- the psychological characteristics of students, etc.
Anthropopsychological model of educational environment proposed by VI Slobodchikov. As a basic concept, V. I. Slobodchikov, like V. V. Rubtsov, is a joint activity of the subjects of the educational process. VI Slobodchikov emphasizes the relativity and mediating nature of the educational environment, its initial unaccountability.
When interpreting the concept of environment VI Slobodchikov proposes to take into account two semantic contexts:
1. The environment - as a set of conditions and circumstances surrounding the individual environment, and accordingly, the boundary, determined by the scale of protection from the environment and its utilization (the ability to assimilation and accommodation).
2. The medium, understood as "middle = core, connection = mediastinum, medium = mediation".
As the main parameters of the educational environment, he suggests to consider its saturation (resource potential) and structuredness (the way it is organized). Depending on the type of relations and relations structuring this educational environment, the author distinguishes three different principles of its organization: uniformity, diversity and variability.The educational environment, according to VI Slobodchikov, is not a given combination of influences and conditions (as is shown, for example, in VA Yasvin and SD Deryabo), but dynamic formation, which is a system product of interaction educational space, education management, place of education and the student himself.
The psychodactical model of differentiation and individualization of the educational environment of the school was proposed by the team of authors: VP Lebedeva, VA Orlov, VA Levin, and others. The authors, proceeding from the concept of "personality-oriented education," emphasize the growing in modern conditions the role of differentiation and individualization of education. However, they understand their role somewhat differently from what was traditionally accepted. If in traditional education the schoolchild, as a result of a special organization of education and upbringing, with purposeful pedagogical influences, became a personality, the education modeled by them, is oriented toward recognizing the priority of his personality for the schoolchild. We are talking about emphasizing its importance as a subject of cognition before immersing it in the educational environment, specially modeled by the educational institution.
The construction of this environment is done by the authors in accordance with the cognitive interests of students, taking into account the capabilities of the teaching staff of the educational institution, the structure of the regional educational system, the traditions and characteristics of the socio-cultural environment. As you can see, in this model the very concept of "educational environment" is limited to the scope of the educational institution.
The ecopsychological approach to the development of the model of the educational environment was proposed by VI Panov. The initial basis for the model of the eco-psychological educational environment of VI Panov is the idea that the mental development of a person in the course of his training should be viewed in the context of the "man-environment" system. According to this approach, the educational environment is understood as a system of pedagogical and psychological conditions and influences that create the possibility of revealing both the interests and abilities that have not yet manifested, and for the development of the already manifested abilities and personality of students in accordance with the inherent natural traits and requirements of age socialization inherent in each individual .
As the basic structural components of the educational environment, VI Panov distinguished: activity (technological), communicative and spatio-subjective. The activity component, from the point of view of the author, represents the space (set of) the various types of activities necessary for the learning and development of students. Communicative component is the space of interpersonal interaction in a direct or subject-mediated form and ways of interaction of the student with this educational environment and its other subjects. The spatial-objective component is the space-object means, the aggregate of which provides the possibility of the required spatial actions and behavior of the subjects of the educational environment. As key concepts here are: territoriality, personalization, place-situation, etc.
Educational environment in the general cultural context. The idea that the development and functioning of the educational environment naturally depends on the characteristics of the cultural and historical context is one of the axioms. The educational environment is an integral part of culture. In order to emphasize the fact of orientation of education on the nature and value of culture in the modern humanities, in the modeling of educational systems, the principle of culturality is often discussed. Insisting on its existence, experts are thereby trying to emphasize the closest relationship of education with the general processes taking place in various spheres of culture. This close relationship has always existed, while the fact of its comprehension and acceptance as a guide to action is a relatively recent acquisition of public consciousness. An important characteristic of this connection is that it is bilateral - any changes in culture automatically lead to changes in the educational environment, and changes in education often quite significantly affect the course of general cultural processes.
To answer the question about what tendencies prevail in modern education, it is necessary to consider the most clearly expressed features of the development of modern culture. In this connection, the concept of the culture of the French culturologist Abraham Mole is of interest. Developed in the 1970s, it nevertheless reflects the current state of affairs. The author divides culture into individual and social, traditional and modern.
Traditional culture, in his opinion, implies a certain hierarchy - the ordering of ideas in the minds of people. It relies on the existence of comprehensive general and related secondary concepts. Due to this, any newly perceived phenomenon can be correlated with a certain system of knowledge, which has a clearly expressed structure, as if woven from the main, secondary, third-line lines. As a graphical metaphor illustrating the structure of this outdated type of culture, A. Mole offers a "knowledge screen" that resembles a cobweb or a grid.
In contrast, modern culture is mosaic. In the educational environment created in this way, a person learns the world according to the laws of the case, in the process of trial and error. He comprehends the cause-and-effect relationships required by the professional activity due to the coincidences of his biography. The totality of his knowledge is the fruit of accidents. Only by accumulating a certain amount of information, a person begins to discover the structures hidden in it. It goes from random to random, but sometimes this random turns out to be significant.
Knowledge screen in this case it is more like not on a relatively well structured mesh or spider web, but rather on felt where the threads are chaotically but firmly intertwined. Human knowledge consists of separate blocks (objects), connected by simple, casual relations of intimacy by the time of assimilation, according to the consonance or association of ideas. These scraps do not form a structure, but they have a cohesive force that, like the old logical links, gives the knowledge screen a certain density, a compactness no less than in the traditional version of the culture.
Such a culture A. Mole calls "mosaic", because it is composed of many contiguous, but not forming a clear construction of fragments. In it there are no points of reference, few truly genuinely common concepts. In this case, many concepts that have great weight. This culture is no longer primarily a product of university or school education, as some rationally organized process of cognition. It is the result of everyday experience obtained as a result of the impact on humans of infinitely large information flows, random in nature. In this type of culture, knowledge is formed not primarily by the system of education, but by means of mass communication.
This feature of modern culture is very important for understanding the current state of the educational environment. It allows to draw a conclusion that the share of traditional state educational institutions in the total volume of human education is decreasing. This process continues for several decades.
Other features of the modern educational environment, derived from the analysis of the features of modern culture, we will outline in a concise manner. Their detailed description is complicated, since we are talking about highly dynamic processes. Therefore, we will designate them in the form of trends:
- intensive development of means of communication;
- the erasure of economic boundaries;
- a new ratio of working time and leisure;
- changes in the nature of work;
- women's leadership;
- cultural nationalism;
- the polarization of society;
- the rapid aging of the population;
- the triumph of personality, etc.
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