The concept of quality assurance of education in the EHEA
The basis of the quality assurance concept that promotes the development of the EHEA is the following principles:
- the relevance and relevance (for students, specific employers and in general for the labor market);
- comparability and compatibility within the framework of the EHEA;
- transparency (based on the use of ECTS);
- mobility and cross-border nature of education;
- attractiveness and competitiveness.
One of the main categories of this concept is relevance . In a student-centered education system ("student-centered"), the key value of any university program is its relevance to the needs of the students themselves and society as a whole. The program should not only be based on the academic (intellectual), professional and social development of the learner, but also aimed at getting work and for a full life in the European context. In this regard, in order to determine the relevant academic and professional profiles, a clear formulation of public needs is needed, which in turn requires building a dialogue between the university community and employers and other social forces.
Comparability and compatibility. University programs should be developed taking into account their comparability and compatibility with similar programs in other European countries on the basis of agreed criteria formulated in the format of general and subject competencies . Ensuring comparability takes into account the importance of the diversity of curricula, educational paradigms and cultural characteristics of the countries participating in the Bologna process. Increasing the comparability and compatibility of programs is facilitated by the use of the ECTS system as a tool for planning and monitoring university programs in general, as well as their various components.
Transparency is the most important characteristic of any educational program, which must be taken into account from the very beginning of its development. Transparency should be provided in learning outcomes, in the learning process, in training resources, in quality assurance systems and in procedures for working with databases. The concept of transparency is directly related to the requirement of using a language that students, employers and other interested parties in different countries understand equally well. Transparency also presupposes the correct use of ECTS credits to determine the training load, Diploma Supplement and other ECTS tools.
Mobility and the cross-border nature of education. The establishment of the EHEA requires a reliable and high-quality system of academic mobility. At the same time, on the one hand, mobility serves as the basis of the system of requirements to the quality of education; on the other hand, on the contrary, mutual trust in the quality of education is the basis of mobility. The physical mobility of students, both within limited periods of study and within the framework of full university programs, ensures the growth of quality in the European dimension of education, a greater number of opportunities for professional employment in the European labor market, and the full development of European civil society.
Attraction. For the European education system, which strives to become attractive for students from third countries, quality problems are key. The quality assurance mechanisms developed at the national level in different countries should be generalized and reworked to ensure that they are perceived as a pan-European quality system for education. Methodological support for improving the quality of European higher education is provided by the TUNING project. The project has developed a common language for describing TLA strategies (see sub-paragraph 1.4.1), which is expected to be developed further, in particular, by formulating quality indicators.
According to EUA experts, universities should create their own methods and systems for the development of an internal culture of quality [200. 129]. They need to monitor the development and implementation of educational activities in accordance with the basic academic values and mission of each institution. At the level of the university and at a lower level of individual subjects (disciplines) a whole series of particular problems must be solved, ensuring the formation of a culture of the quality of education. These tasks are as follows:
- the use of the experience of teachers representing various academic traditions;
- receiving information from professional associations and other stakeholders to ensure a continuing dialogue regarding social relevance and adequacy of education;
- taking into account the latest trends in each subject area to ensure a dynamic approach to the formulation of standards;
- ensuring the correspondence between training courses and programs, on the one hand, and professional and academic profiles in the international context, on the other;
- conducting studies of the employment market at the European level, taking into account diversity and innovation;
- ensuring the development of the descriptors of cycles (levels) in terms of competencies used in the creation of national and all-European systems of educational qualifications, etc.
Additional information related to the specifics of quality assurance of higher education in the EHEA can be found on the EUA websites [169; 170; 171]. We will limit ourselves here to one example - the British approach to ensuring the quality of the training of a teacher of higher education.
Master of Arts (MA), Master of Science (MSc), Master of Business Administration (MBA) can be admitted to teaching at British universities, but priority is given to holders of Ph.D. degrees .
The British higher education system has a distinctive feature: here, in the conditions of wide academic autonomy of universities, there is no single normative base for higher education. Unlike most European countries, in Great Britain there are no uniform requirements for graduates (educational standards) as a single system of state regulation of the content of student preparation, and unified for all universities. Each university approves its educational programs, implements its organization of the educational process and a system for assessing students' knowledge. All internal issues of university life are decided by a particular institution in accordance with its charter and charter. If documents from the Ministry of Education and Science or the Committee of Vice Chancellors and Rectors come out at the same time, they are extremely recommendatory in nature [138. 7].
In these conditions, the general quality qualifications of a graduate of a British university (ie, not educational, but essentially professional standards) become a tool for regulating the quality of higher education.
For example, the qualifications of a high school teacher operating in the UK include the requirements that the teacher must:
- it is brilliant to know the professional discipline taught to students;
- to establish contacts with students, graduate students, colleagues
- to prepare and conduct lectures, practical exercises, experimental and experimental work, field work;
- to guide the professional practice of students;
- to advise students on academic work, future career, personal problems;
- be able to objectively evaluate the results of student work, keep a record of their knowledge, help to achieve success in study and research work
- have the skill to conduct exams, clearly raise questions, tasks, define tasks;
- be able to think analytically and teach this to students;
- to carry out research work in the field of their professional interest;
- manage student research projects;
- have the skills of administrative work (working in the waiting and examination commissions, various university committees, providing the necessary assistance to beginners or less experienced colleagues, etc.);
- to participate as an external expert in the examination sessions of other universities in the country and abroad;
- have a deep interest in the discipline being taught, constantly update and update their professional knowledge, monitor achievements and innovations in their industry;
- be able to establish contacts and communicate with students
- have skills in developing a curriculum based on the requirements of the course being taught;
- to have a high level of practical competence, to be able to demonstrate it while working in student groups;
- be able to constantly change, absorb new, meet modern requirements; and others [138. P. 13].
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