The conditions for the appearance of speech, Individual features...

Conditions for speech occurrence

The speech arises as a means of situational and business communication, in which an adult acquaints a child with different objects, their properties and helps a kid to master specific, culturally-fixed actions with them. In order for a child to have a desire to speak, there is a need for communication with the adult and in activities with objects. If there are enough non-verbal means of communication for emotional contacts, then for realization of situational and business communication, he needs to call words objects, actions, address to an adult for help, ask questions, etc.

In the course of a joint activity, an adult presents to the child two basic elements necessary for the occurrence of speech: subject and word , which it is denoted. In addition, he creates for the baby the need to designate the pre - met with the word , i.e. puts before him a "communicative task" . The word task in this case means that a problem situation objectively arises before the child , which requires a verbal solution from him. The adult calls the subject and encourages the child to repeat his name, asks for a verbal instruction (for example, to bring an item, to show and name the picture in the book, etc.). If the child accepts this task, he tries to solve it. If an adult does not put a speech task before him, a gap can arise between passive speech, that is, her understanding and active speech of the child.

Deficiency of speech communication is one of the causes of delays not only in the development of speech in the child, but also in mental development in general. Such facts are observed in dysfunctional families, where children are left to themselves, and in the homes of the child, where the staff has little contact with children.

In the studies of M.I. Lisinoy, A.G. Ruzskaya, V.V. Vetrova, M.G. Elagina, three components of the communicative factor were revealed, which play a decisive role in the appearance of active speech in children.

The first of them - establishing emotional contacts between an adult and a child. Ruzsky proved that the development of passive and active speech occurs at a much higher rate in children who have a benevolent and trusting relationship with adults.

The second component - the saturation of the child with audible speech. Wind data was obtained, suggesting that the factor of verbal stimulation of the child is important in the occurrence of speech, but the social context within which speech arises, that is, saturation of the child's experience with audible speech gives a favorable effect only if it is included in the situation of communication with an adult.

Third component - an adult collaboration organization with the child, during which he assimilates culturally- means of communication, i.e. an attitude is formed to the object environment, which requires a designation in the speech (MG Elagina's study).

Individual features of speech development at an early age

Despite the presence of certain patterns in the development of speech, the timing of the occurrence, the pace and nature of its formation may be different. These features in the second and third years of life of children have a conditional age-related relationship. Some say their first words at the end of the first year of life, others - only after two years. Some are delayed at the stage of utterance of individual words, others immediately begin to speak with sentences. Some early prove themselves to be "verbalists", others, despite a well-formed speech, grow "Molchanes". Genetic factors also make their contribution to the timing of the appearance of speech. So, in a family where one of the parents began to speak late, one can expect a later appearance of active speech in the child. It is also known that girls often start talking earlier than boys.

Individual differences in the rate of speech development in children are so great that it is impossible to draw conclusions about the delay in development mechanically, based only on the child's passport age. In the first half of the early age, the most important indicator of speech development is passive speech.

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