The content of education and training - Pedagogy. Theoretical pedagogy

3.5. Learning and upbringing content

Under the content of upbringing is understood the system of knowledge, beliefs, skills, qualities and personality traits, stable habits of behavior, which students must master in accordance with the goals and tasks set. Mental, physical, labor and polytechnical, moral, aesthetic education, merged in a holistic educational process, provide an opportunity to achieve the main goal - the formation of a comprehensively and harmoniously developed personality.

In recent years, views on the content of the educational process quickly and radically changed. There is no unity today: our society, and with it the school, are going through a difficult period of comprehension of objective truth. A course is taken towards humanizing and democratizing the school, which should lead to a new quality of education. At the heart of the modern ideology of education are the following ideas.

1. Realism of the goals of education. The real goal today is the diverse development of man, based on his abilities and talents. The means to achieve this goal is the mastering by man of the basic foundations of culture. Hence the central concept of the content of upbringing is the "basic culture" personality, i. culture of life self-determination: economic culture and labor culture; political, democratic and legal; moral and ecological, artistic and physical; culture of family relations.

2. Joint activity of children and adults Search together with children of moral samples, the best samples of spiritual culture, culture of activity, the development on this basis of their own values, norms and laws of life, , ensuring an active personal position of the student in the educational process.

3. Self-determination. Developing upbringing involves the formation of an integral personality - a person with strong convictions, democratic views and a vital position. The most important element of the content of upbringing is the culture of a person's life self-determination. Vital self-determination is a broader concept than professional and even civil. The culture of life self-determination characterizes man as a subject of his own life and his own happiness. It is in the harmony of man with himself that civil, professional and moral self-determination should go.

4. The personal orientation of education. At the center of all educational work of the school should not be programs, activities, forms and methods, but the child, teenager, youth - the highest goal, the meaning of our pedagogical care. We need to develop their individual inclinations and interests, the originality of their characters, their own dignity. The movement from the nearest interests of pupils to the development of high spiritual needs should become the rule of upbringing.

5. Voluntary. Without the own good will of the pupils, the essential ideas of upbringing can not be embodied: neither the idea of ​​development (overcoming, elevating oneself) nor the idea of ​​cooperation. The educational process, if it is organized as coercive, leads to the degradation of the morality of both the child and the teacher. Children can not be forced educated & quot ;. Free will of the pupil is manifested if the educators rely on interest, romance, a sense of comradely and civic duty, the desire for self-activity and creativity.

6. Collectivist orientation. In the content of educational work it is necessary to overcome the attitude towards the collective as a purely disciplinary means capable only of suppressing the personality, rather than elevating its spiritual and moral strength.

The aspiration of the school is a pledge of renewing the content and methods of upbringing, which opens the way from the leveling of the personality to its versatile development; from memorizing dogmas to cognition and transformation of the world; from authoritarianism and alienation to humanity and cooperation.

How should the content of upbringing be practically organized in order to implement these ideas? Today it is not enough to inform the pupil: a person should receive mental, moral, aesthetic and other upbringing. It inevitably raises practical questions: what does it take, what does it give? In foreign educational systems it is this practical side that comes to the fore and serves as a powerful stimulus for developing a positive attitude to the content of upbringing.

Theoretical analysis confirms that the modern graduate of the secondary general and higher school must be initiative, independent, mobile, ready to respond correctly to any challenge to life. Practically it should be prepared for the fulfillment of the three main roles in life - citizen, worker, family man. Let's try to determine the specific qualities of a person and the person's obligations in selected areas.

Qualities of a citizen

1. Performance of civil duties - a sense of duty to the country, society, parents.

2. Feeling of national pride and patriotism.

3. Respect for the Constitution of the state, state authorities, the President of the country, symbols of statehood (coat of arms, flag, hymn).

4. Responsibility for the fate of the country.

5. Social discipline and culture of the hostel.

6. Careful attitude to national wealth of the country, language, culture, traditions.

7. Public activity.

8. Observance of democratic principles.

9. A careful attitude towards nature.

10. Respect for the rights and freedoms of others.

11. Active life position.

12. Legal awareness and civil responsibility.

13. Honesty, truthfulness, sensitivity, mercy.

14. Responsibility for their actions and deeds.

15. Internationalism, respect for the peoples of other countries; and others

Employee Qualities

1. Discipline and responsibility.

2. Workability and organization.

3. General, special and economic knowledge.

4. Political knowledge.

5. Creative attitude to work.

6. Perseverance, the desire to quickly and efficiently carry out the assigned task.

7. Professional pride, respect for skill.

8. Consciousness, politeness, accuracy.

9. Work experience.

10. Emotional production culture.

11. Aesthetic attitude to work, life, activity.

12. Collectivism, the ability to work together.

13. Initiative, independence.

14. Willingness to work hard and fruitfully for the benefit of the country, society.

15. Deliberation and enterprise.

16. Responsibility for the results of work.

17. Respect for people of labor, masters of production; and others

Family qualities

1. Industriousness, responsibility.

2. Tactfulness, politeness, a culture of communication.

3. Ability to behave in society.

4. Neatness, cleanliness, hygienic skills.

5. Health, a habit of an active lifestyle.

6. Ability to organize and conduct leisure.

7. Versatile education.

8. Knowledge of legal norms, laws.

9. Knowledge of practical psychology, ethics.

10. Ability to bring up children.

11. Psychosexual preparedness.

12. Willingness to marry and fulfill family responsibilities.

13. Respect for your parents, elderly people.

It is not difficult to notice that in the selected spheres many qualities are repeated. This testifies to the organic integrity of the education of all the qualities and aspects of the personality and indicates the only true way to achieve this integrity is a comprehensive approach to upbringing.

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