The concept of the content of education
One of the main means of developing the personality and forming its basic culture is the content of education. In traditional pedagogy, focused on the implementation of predominantly educational functions of the school, the content of education is defined as the "aggregate of systematized knowledge, skills and attitudes, and a certain level of development of cognitive forces and practical training achieved as a result of teaching and educational work." This is the so-called knowledge-oriented approach to the definition of the essence of the content of education, which introduces the fragmentation of the entire content of education into different subject areas.
With such an approach, the focus is on knowledge as a reflection of the spiritual wealth of mankind, accumulated in the process of searching for and historical experience, contributing to the socialization of the individual, the entry of man into society. The content of education in this case is the whole culture of humanity, the integrity of which is split according to the studied subject area as a set of some components. The hierarchy of the components of culture in the formation of the content of education in a knowledge-oriented approach is shown in Fig. 3.11.
Fig. 3.11. Scheme of the content of education as a hierarchy of cultural components
These are very different components and mastering them requires not only perception, understanding, memorization, reproduction, actions on the models, but also emotional response, own search, appraisal activity and much more. However, with a knowledge-oriented approach, fragmented knowledge becomes an absolute value in the learning process and obscures the student himself, his attitudes and values. This leads to the ideologization and regulation of the scientific core of knowledge, their academicism, the orientation of the content of education on the average student and other negative consequences.
The current level of development of didactics allows us to speak about two contradictions in the formation of the content of education, which can not be overcome by a knowledge-oriented approach.
The first contradiction. The subject structure of the content of education as a characteristic feature of the knowledge-oriented approach facilitates a systematic study of the foundations of scientific knowledge, but it breaks up a single world, divides it into constituent parts, which prevents the formation in the minds of students of an integral picture of the world, ideas about its unity and internal connections.
The second contradiction. A large amount of study material is studied in parts, in a linear sequence, discretely, the training is necessarily stretched in time, so students based on the linear structure of the study not always there are integral ideas about the studied components of disciplinary knowledge.
Organization of the content of education
In the history of education, attempts have been made to reconstruct subject teaching and even to replace it with more complete structures (complexes, projects). So, in the years 1923-1925. Comprehensive programs for the school were developed under the guidance of the scientific and pedagogical section of the State Academic Council (GUS), in which the subject construction of the school course was replaced by a single set of information about nature, labor and society. This complex of information was divided into three areas of development that led the child from those he knew and loved (the family and his house), to topics whose content was the life of the whole country, and then the activities of all mankind.
In the second half of the XIX century. in US schools a method of projects has emerged. It was based on the provisions of pragmatic pedagogy (D. Dewey), which proclaimed "teaching by doing", i.e. based on the practical training of students, which contributed to the formation of a holistic approach to reality, an understanding of the interrelations of different aspects of life, brought together theory and practice. However, this was achieved by the cost of renouncing a systematic and deep knowledge of the fundamentals of scientific knowledge, i.e. with violation of the most important principle of training - systematic.
As can be seen from these two examples, every organization of the content of education is of a historical nature, since it is determined by the goals and objectives of education at a particular stage in the development of society. In the last decade, in the light of the idea of humanizing education, the person-oriented approach to revealing the essence of the content of education is increasingly being affirmed. This approach was reflected in the works of I. Ya. Lerner and M. N. Skatkina, by definition of which the content of education is a pedagogically adapted system :
a) knowledge, skills and abilities;
b) experience of creative activity;
c) experience of emotional-volitional attitudes.
The assimilation of this system is designed to ensure the formation of a fully developed personality, prepared for the reproduction (preservation) and development of the material and spiritual culture of society. Thus, with a person-oriented approach to determining the content of education, the person becomes an absolute value in the process of his education, which corresponds to the contemporary educational, spiritual, cultural and vital needs of the individual, the humane attitude to the developing personality, the emergence of its individuality.
The personal-oriented content of education is aimed at the development of a holistic person, which is feasible only with the development of natural, social, and cultural principles and can implement in the context of such content of education that has universal, national and regional value. Proceeding from these grounds and on the basis of the highlighted principles of teaching in the content of education at the end of the 20th century, were included:
- the foundations of all sciences, defining the modern natural science and social picture of the world, i.e. a set of fundamental concepts, laws, theories, basic facts, the main types of problems solved by science;
- main applications, applications of theoretical knowledge;
- methodological knowledge, providing the consciousness of mastering and development of thinking, including information about the history of knowledge;
- information required to provide all or many spheres of human activity;
- unsolved but important scientific and social problems;
- generalized ideas and positions, giving an idea of the unity and development of the world.
In addition, when selecting content, it was recognized that it is necessary to take into account the age opportunities of the students and the logic of their development, and also to ensure the social and person-oriented orientation of the studied material. In accordance with the new approaches, V. Kraevsky proposed the revision of three basic principles that fully reflected the entire range of didactic principles. The formulated principles are presented as an integral entity - the triune of principles mutually mutually reinforcing. It is important to note that the triune unity itself reflects the principle of reflecting in the content of education all the leading elements of the world and national culture that contain the potential for personal development of trainees.
Accepting such a configuration of the interaction of the formulated sin of the basic principles of selection of the content of education, it is possible to derive the selection criteria for the contents, which are presented in Table. 3.3.
Criteria for selecting the content of education
1. Criterion for a holistic reflection of the main components of social experience, the prospects for its development, the tasks of comprehensive personality development
- knowledge of nature, society, technology, culture, man, mastering the ways of working on patterns;
- the assimilation of the experience of creative activity and the formation of emotionally valuable relationships that are crucial for the transition of knowledge to beliefs
2. Criterion for selecting the main and significant
- the selection of the most universal, necessary elements in the content of education, which have a high significance of the studied
3. A criterion for matching students' age opportunities
- taking into account the content features of the material presented in relation to the psychophysiological features of perception of a certain age
4. The criterion of correspondence to the one selected for studying this subject of time
- selection of necessary and sufficient content that does not destroy the integrity of the system of scientific knowledge
5. Criterion of accounting for experience in the formation of curriculum content
- taking into account the results of analysis of international and domestic experience in the formation of curricula and existing expert assessments of its effectiveness
6. The criterion of the correspondence of the content to the teaching, material and methodical equipment of the school
- a comparison of the real capabilities of the school and its pedagogical staff in the implementation of developing opportunities for various topics and sections of subject knowledge
All six of these criteria in their integrity allow to solve the problem of selecting from the general composition of culture those elements of the optimal content of education that should be included in school curricula without compromising the development of the trainee's personality. This selection problem has long been manifested in the history of didactics as a competition for theories of material and formal education.
Theory of material education justifies the appropriateness of giving students the largest possible amount of knowledge, primarily necessary for life and work, while supporters formal education argue that the main focus should be on developing the abilities of students, their thinking, memory, imagination. The usefulness of these theories is to identify the real opposite tendencies and approaches to the content of education, which allowed K.D. Ushinsky to argue that "reason develops only in real real knowledge". The peculiarity of the modern understanding of the tasks and content of developmental instruction, in contrast to the tasks of formal education, lies precisely in the fact that these tasks are feasible only on the basis of a deep study of the fundamentals of science and deep immersion in culture, mastering its ideas, traditions, specific content. This approach allows us to hope that education can give society a truly educated people with deep planetary thinking, civic consciousness, understanding of the indivisibility of the world of nature and the world of man, the ability to self-realization.
The problem of the correlation of humanitarian and natural science education and the problem of their synthesis acquire special significance for achieving the integrity of cognition of the world in this regard. Humanitarian knowledge is knowledge about a person and human society (history, sociology, literary criticism, ethics, political science, pedagogy, etc.), its distinctive features are less certainty and accuracy than technical and natural science knowledge, but also greater flexibility, variability and polysemy. Naturally scientific knowledge and thinking, on the contrary, possess greater rigor, certainty, uniqueness, therefore they are more rational, rely on strict logic and suggest specific solutions and recommendations. A harmonious combination of humanitarian and natural science knowledge in the general education structure is designed to create in students the skills of variability and integrity of thinking when addressing the phenomena of the surrounding world and assessing its place in the overall picture of the world.
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