The importance of situational and business communication for...

The importance of situational and business communication for the general mental development of the child

Communication with adults affects the leading activity: in the course of his child learns new and increasingly complex activities. Through the display, support, prompting, participation of an adult, he takes possession of cultural ways of dealing with objects, assimilates the meanings and the operational and technical side of the subject-tool actions. Cooperation with an adult is the main, decisive psychological condition for the formation of the child's objective activity.

In the joint activity with the adult, the preconditions of the story play develop, the procedural game develops. The adult opens the world to the conditional use of objects, shows him the first game actions, offers game stories, teaches use substitute subjects. In the process of such interaction, the beginnings of the role behavior of the child arise, the foundations of the future plot-role play are laid.

Communication with adults has a decisive influence on the occurrence and development of children's speech . Speech is born from the need for communication, in order to communicate and in conditions of communication. Only in communicating with an adult before a child is a special communicative task - to understand the speech addressed to him and give her a verbal response. It is the adult that creates for the child a practical need to internalize and actualize the connection between the subject and its verbal designation. In the process of situational and business communication, the child develops such an attitude toward the object environment, which requires a designation in the speech. In cooperation with an adult, the child's speech thinking develops, allowing him to go beyond the limits of his private situation "to the vast expanses of cognitive activity" .

Communication with adults is one of the decisive factors in the development of the personality and self-awareness of the child. The experience of situational and business communication influences the development of the child's concept of himself and his abilities. Under the influence of joint and individual objective activity, there is a differentiation of general and concrete self-esteem. The favorable experience of personality-oriented cooperation with adults stimulates the formation of such personal qualities as curiosity, the desire for independence, perseverance, purposefulness in activity.

In the context of situational and business communication, the prerequisites for switching to a new, higher level of communication - outside situational-cognitive communication, which is born in the period when the child is mastering an active speech and begins to ask the eldest questions about the world around him, discuss what he saw in the pictures, read by an adult in books. He is no longer satisfied with only practical ways of knowing, so he begins to initiate a purely cognitive, "theoretical" communication, during which the adult acts as a source of knowledge about outside of situational objects with which the child can not interact directly, study them through research activities. The only real way of penetrating the child from the direct observation and the world that is inaccessible to practical actions is communication with the surrounding adults. The emergence of a new form of communication reflects important changes in the inner world of the child - the emergence in him of the need for respect from adults to his desire for knowledge, in recognizing him the right to ask questions and get serious answers, to have an opinion.

The most striking evidence of the impact of communication on the child's mental development is found in child's homes . Practically in all areas of development, pupils of these institutions have some degree of lag. And it's not just that children often come to the children's homes, weighed down by bad heredity and disease. The experience of adoption of children shows that as soon as the kids from the child's home enter the family, they compensate for the lag in mental development rather quickly. Numerous studies have shown that the main cause of delays in the development of children's homes is the inadequately built communication between staff and children. Especially bright lag is manifested in the development of those types of activities and such qualities of personality that require for their formation an individual, personal approach to the child. It is known that children from children's homes outstrip their peers in the level of mastering domestic skills: they better use a spoon, dress faster, get accustomed to the toilet, etc. Such actions can easily be formed by "pulling" child. As for such fundamental kinds of activity as children's development, such as communication with an adult, cognitive activity, creative play, the children of the children's homes lag far behind their peers from the family in terms of their level of development.

Particularly noticeable lag in the personal development of children in the homes of the child. A toddler, growing up in favorable conditions of family upbringing, is curious, open and benevolent towards the world around him, is initiative in both objective activity and communication. He stubbornly seeks the attention of adults, eagerly responds to their initiative, persistently achieves his goal, actively declares his self. His peer, who is brought up in a child's home, is usually apathetic, lack of initiative, often indifferent to others, he has no affection for either adults, or peers, he is little sensitive to the evaluation of an adult, poorly differentiates positive and negative evaluations, which affects the quality of his subject-matter activity and the development of speech, leading to their delays.

At the same time, the practice of corrective work with such children shows that deviations in their mental and personal development that have arisen at the early stages of ontogeny are not fatal and overcome if the organization of such pedagogical work at the center of which is the formation of an age-appropriate child communication with an adult and expanding his experience of interaction with the surrounding objective and social world.


At an early age, the main form of communication between a child and an adult is situational and business communication. It is typical for him to need cooperation with an adult. Leaders are business motives. The adult speaks for the child as a partner in the game, a role model, an expert in assessing skills and knowledge. The main communicative means here are subject-practical actions and speech.

Along with situational and business communication, important is the importance and the existing situational-personal communication continues to develop. On the basis of them, by the end of an early age, a situational-cognitive form of communication begins to take shape.

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