Individual and his social abilities
Basic concepts : individual, abilities, social abilities, inclinations, inclinations, talent, genius, types of social abilities, structure of social abilities, types of social abilities, strategic abilities, tactical abilities, subject social abilities, forms of manifestation of social abilities, functions of social abilities.
A person, an individual who has emerged from work in the animal world and who develops in a society, carries out joint activities with other people and communicates with them, gradually becomes a person - a subject of cognition and active transformation of the material world, society and himself on the basis of individual abilities.
Ability is the active power of a person, conditioned both by its biopsychic substratum and the sociocultural substratum of society. Dialectical understanding of the ability implies the realization of it as a contradictory correlation of the biological and social, internal and external.
The cumulative (virtual) ability of a person is universal and social. The universality of human ability lies in the fact that man is able to create not only in its measure, but also in proportion to any kind, as far as any object, because in it as in the higher, objective world, there are all the lower forms of natural evolution. The social nature of a person's ability expresses its sociocultural conditioning, dependence on the social experience of mankind (the practice of musical, organizational, pedagogical, medical and other activities). Even the biological abilities of man are special, cultivated.
Social abilities that develop on the basis of makings are conditioned, but not predetermined by them. Peculiarities of the development of speech, its communicative function, the special development of hearing organs, the external physiological data of a person, those who have a surrounding to communicate with him, physical strength as a condition of helping others, etc., can be the person's predetermined social abilities. Settlements cause different ways of forming abilities, affect the level of achievement, the speed of development.
Social abilities - a higher level of development of a person's abilities, which, being an individual psychological feature of a person manifested in activity and being a condition for its successful implementation, turn into social abilities reflecting the personality's capabilities in interaction with the social environment, with socialization socium. The speed, depth, lightness and strength of the process of mastering social knowledge, skills and skills of such interaction depend on social abilities. And if a person's abilities are lifetime formations, their development goes on in the process of individual life, then the social environment actively forms social abilities as such. Social abilities - the concept of a dynamic, their formation occurs in the process of a certain way organized by joint activities.
Usually, the types of social abilities are distinguished by their focus or specialization. In this regard, the general social abilities are distinguished (such individual personality traits that provide relative ease and productivity in mastering social knowledge and implementing various types of social activity); special social abilities (a system of personality properties that help achieve high results in some kind of social activity, allowing him to achieve a certain social status in society). Special abilities are organically related to common abilities.
Social abilities are a special quality that is acquired by the individual in society, in the aggregate of relations that are social in nature, into which the individual is involved, the essence of the person in the "ether" This relationship ... personality is a systemic and therefore "supersensory" quality, although the bearer of this quality is a completely sensual, bodily individual with all his innate and acquired properties.
Thus, social abilities need a special characteristic that could describe this social quality, the carrier of which is the individual.
Social abilities are acquired properties of a person that meet the requirements of socially significant activity, changing under the influence of social upbringing, corresponding to social norms. It is social abilities that are the foundation for schoolchildren, which subsequently helps them successfully learn and interact with the society. These include the ability to work in a group, the ability to manage conflicts, leadership qualities.
The formation of abilities is a problem of the actual inclusion of an individual in the system of social relations, which functions and develops due to the diverse factors of social activity.
Of course, social ability exists in different forms and at different levels. The most typical allocation of four such levels: makings; giftedness; talent; genius.
This relationship is not static, because in the course of activity, during development, exercise, and training, an ability is raised.
The ability of a person can be differentiated according to the types of activity: the ability to produce and the ability to consume (the ability to create works of art and the ability to perceive them, the ability to produce material goods and the ability to consume them, etc.). Both abilities can be reproductive or creative. Reproductive ability is the ability to reproduce this activity in its historically developed form. Creative ability is the ability to create new things, to carry out any activity innovatively.
Since there is a spiritual world and a world of material phenomena, one can speak of the ability to create in the "field of consciousness" and about human creativity in the "matter field".
The social ability of a person is related to his social need in their overall orientation to social activity. If the social need expresses an attitude toward social activity ("I want to communicate with another"), then the social ability is a readiness for social activity ("I can communicate with another"). It is known that any activity realizing the needs and abilities of the individual, develops his skills and abilities. Ultimately, social activity proves to be conditioned by three subject terms: "I want" and they know the tasks of the three pedagogical processes:
• education - the formation of attitudes, motivational culture of the individual;
• training - the formation of knowledge, information culture of the individual;
• development - the formation of skills, operational culture of the individual.
The formation of social needs - the task of social education, the formation of social abilities - the task of social learning and social development.
From the point of view of social pedagogy, the most significant abilities of the individual are social. They are a system of socio-pedagogical properties of the personality that determine or provide for its participation in communication with other people, entry into cooperation, joint activity, and thus into human community; this is a kind of ability, manifested in the sphere of communication and contributing to the success of a person in various fields of activity.
The social environment determines the level of development of social abilities, their structure, because at different stages of social development, a social, historically determined practice influences the nature of the communicative activity of the individual.
Social abilities are formed in the process of social activity, thereby determining the determinative role of the latter in the development of the corresponding pedagogical potential of the individual. But there is also a feedback - the influence of social abilities on the nature and effectiveness of the relevant activity of the subject. This mutual determination in many ways determines the functional structure of the social abilities of the individual.
The content and nature of social activities are directly dependent on the socio-economic, social relations that dominate at this or that stage of social development.
The individual is the subject of social activity. On the one hand, on the basis of the inclinations of elementary social abilities, this activity is formalized and developed, and on the other hand - realizing the goals of social activity in the process of development of information interactions, the personality forms and improves his social abilities.
Social abilities have certain qualitative manifestations. Qualitative characteristics of social abilities include: the ability to compensate for some abilities by others; positive and negative nature of social abilities; the dynamic nature of abilities; the possibility of quantitative measurements of abilities (see Appendix 3).Based on the assumption that social abilities reflect the potential of a person in interacting with the social environment, with society, in the structure of social abilities, one should distinguish: a) social abilities for social activity (the ability to understand and integrate into various types of social activities, the ability to realize pedagogical potential of social activity for resolving the problems of socialization of the individual, the ability to develop the pedagogical potential of social activity, etc.); b) social abilities for social relations (the ability to understand and integrate into social relations, the ability to realize the pedagogical potential of social relations to solve problems of socialization of the individual, the ability to develop the pedagogical potential of social relations, etc.); c) social abilities to interact with social institutions (the ability to establish business contacts, exchange information with social institutions, the ability to coordinate their views, actions with representatives of various social institutions, the skills of organizing joint events with social institutions, the ability to realize the pedagogical potential of social institutions in resolving problems of socialization of the person, etc.); d) social abilities to interact with other individuals (the ability to understand and interact with other individuals to develop social needs, social values, the ability to use the pedagogical potential of individuals, professionals, to solve problems of socialization of the personality, etc.). >
The considered parity of makings and social abilities shows that although the development of abilities depends on natural prerequisites, which are not the same for different people, however, social abilities are not so much a gift of nature as a product of human socialization. The manifestation of social abilities is directly dependent on the concrete conditions of existence of the society and specific methods (methods) for the development of social experience (the formation of relevant knowledge and skills) that people have developed in the course of meeting the needs of society. It is noted that the emergence of interest in a particular social activity is closely related to the awakening of abilities for it and serves as a starting point for their development. "Our desires," according to Goethe, "the presentiments of the powers hidden in us, are forerunners of what we are able to accomplish."
The strengthened desires and interest of the child to the society is a "litmus paper" his social abilities, a signal that should make others think about whether the emerging social abilities do not know.
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