Impact of objective activity on the child's mental development
Subject activity contributes to the development of mental processes. When talking about development, it should be remembered that it is not the sum of partial changes in each individual function, but the holistic process that is characterized not so much the level of development of individual mental functions and their improvement, how many changes in interfunctional relationships. With regard to pedagogy of early age, this means that the content of children's education should not be development and "training" ; individual processes - perception, thinking, memory or attention. A full-fledged mental development can be achieved only through the purposeful organization of different types of children's activities, and above all the leading, in the course of which all mental processes are perfected in their interconnection and mutual influence.
Each period of development inherent in a certain structure of mental processes, in the center of which is the most intensively developing function in this period, affecting all mental development.
The predominant perception in the system of interfunctional relations of mental function at an early age is perception. The child is not yet capable of abstract, abstract thinking, only acting with objects, he knows the world around him in his immediate sense with sight, hearing, touch, smell.
During the early age, the visual perception of the child is improved. And the most intensively developed are those species that are most needed for the successful implementation of substantive and practical activities. First of all, the child learns the language perception, associated with ideas about such properties of objects as form, magnitude, their mutual correspondence and relationship. The development of perception follows the path of gradual separation of the perceptual action from the sensorimotor act. Before taking action, the child increasingly resorts to a visual examination of objects, makes a decision based on it and then acts.
Within the framework of the leading activity there is an intensive development of children's phonemic hearing . In order to successfully solve cognitive and practical problems, which the adult puts before the baby, he needs to understand his speech. In the process of joint actions with objects, the child's attention to the adult's word, his articulatory movements, the desire to pronounce the words himself develops. All this contributes to the sharpening of the phonemic hearing underlying the passive and active speech.
Mastering human-specific actions with objects contributes to the intensive development of visual-efficient thinking. All items that fall into the zone of interest of the child become, in the words of J. Piaget , problem for the mind & quot ;. The development of thinking goes along the way of the gradual curtailment of externally developed actions, the appearance of representations, symbolic images, the formation of visual-shaped thinking. Throughout the early age, children develop the ability not only to perform action, but also to imagine it. The main instrument of symbolization is the language that makes thinking truly social.
As the age increases, the effectiveness of the internal plan of action, involving the construction and storing images of objects and people in the memory, their generalization, highlighting certain traits in them, establishing the simplest relations between the images , performing the operations of constructing a part from the whole. Memory also develops along the line of increasing the volume of accumulated information and the duration of its preservation.
Complicating the activity entails an increase in the duration, concentration and volume of attention. In general memory and attention on During the early age, they retain their involuntary and immediate character, i.e. proceed to a great extent without internal efforts and without the use of special means.
Objective activity also defines the content of the child's communication with adults. According to the nature of the actions, his communication with surrounding people is also restructured: it acquires the "business" character and develops mainly in practical interaction with adults, during which new means of communication develop, the main one of which is speech. At an early age, the speech is used by the child, before all as a means of business contacts with an adult.
Within the scope of objective activity, its new form is formed - procedural game. Assimilation of socially developed ways of actions with objects is included in the system of human relations, which the child begins to realize in the course of a real -practical interaction with adults. In the process of assimilation, actions begin to gradually "detach" from the subjects on which they were assimilated. They are transferred to other objects similar to them, but not identical to them. In this way, generalized actions are created, on the basis of which it becomes possible to compare with the actions of adults, and thanks to the atom the penetration of the child into their tasks and meaning. Gradually, first with the help of an adult, and then more and more independently the child begins to reproduce the elements of interaction with the adults around him in the new conditions - with story toys. So in the depths of objective activity begins to develop a procedural game.
Subject activity contributes to the development of the personality of the child, mediates his attitude to the surrounding his objective and social world and to himself; promotes development of cognitive interests, curiosity, independence, purposefulness. Within the scope of objective activity, the child's ideas about himself and his abilities are improved, differentiation of general and specific self-esteem takes place, personal early growth is formed, which manifests itself in the phenomenon of "pride in achievement" •
In the early age of the leading is the subject-tool activity. It has its own logic of development, it goes from non-specific manipulative actions with objects to specific manipulative actions, and then to actual objective actions based on cultural ways of using objects.
The development of objective action occurs in the process of joint activity of the child with an adult by including the object in the pattern of its correct use, where the assimilation of the social function of the object and the techniques for its implementation are merged. Development here takes place through the transformation of joint action first into action, divided with the adult, and then independent.
Leading activities ensure the development of all aspects of the child's psyche: in it, individual mental processes are perfected; differentiate other types of activities (procedural game); formed situational and business communication with an adult; there are psychological changes in the personality of the child (initiative, independence, purposefulness in the objective activity develop).
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