The influence of speech on the child's mental development
The main meaning of speech in the child's mental development is that it frees him from being bound by the situation, by momentary events and opens up the possibility to act not only with things, but also with their deputies - signs embodied in the word; pushes the temporary perspective of the baby's life, allowing him to turn to the past and the future.
Speech helps a child get rid of naturalness in relation to the objective world: he begins to appear before him the world of objects of human culture. Speech allows a child to get acquainted with it not only through personal experience, but also with the help of the word. Through verbal communication with adults, the child learns about things that he himself did not directly perceive.
Timely development of speech provides the child with the deepening and expansion of mutual understanding, both with relatives and outsiders. Speech moves the child's social life frame. Through a new attitude to an adult not only as a source of warmth and caring, but also as a model, a bearer of human culture, he emerges from the narrow framework of exclusively individual ties to the wider world of human relationships.
Mastering speech allows a child to overcome the limitations of situational communication and move from a purely practical cooperation with adults to cooperation "theoretical" - outside of situational cognitive communication.
The appearance of speech rearranges mental processes and activities.
It changes the child's perception of the environment: it becomes independent of the external positions of the object, the way it is presented. At this age, children recognize and name images of objects, people, animals in drawings, photographs, in films.
The influence of speech on the development of the child's thinking is invaluable. At first, the baby can not think with words without reliance on a visual situation. Words only accompany the action or ascertain its result (for example, after seeing the fallen doll, the child says: "Lala fell"). In the third year of his life, his speech is more and more freed from the dictates of the visual situation. With the help of speech, he generates, makes conclusions, begins to reason. Now the child can not only discuss specific actions with objects or what he sees before himself, but also talk about his experiences, recall episodes from his life, plan future events.
Gradually, speech becomes the basis for becoming arbitrary behavior , begins to perform planning function. For example, the child tells mom, that he is going to build a garage for the car, or tells the doll what they will do: "I'll cook you soup, then we'll eat *.
In many situations, the word becomes a means of monitoring and managing behavior. For example, a two-year-old, going to carry out an adult's assignment, repeats to himself: "I'm going, I need to go." In another situation, with difficulty moving the loaded toy car, he says tensely: "Lead, lead, Kolya."
In the same period, the child begins to accompany his actions with the words evaluation character, imitating the adult. For example, when assembling a pyramid, after each string, the ringlet says to itself: "so ... so ... so * or not so ...
However, at an early age, the regulatory function of speech is not yet sufficiently developed. It can be difficult for a child to switch from an interesting occupation, to keep the task in hand, fulfilling the task of an adult or realizing his plan.
Speech initially arises and develops as a means of communication with an adult. In the future, it becomes a means of thinking and mastering one's own behavior.
The conditions of its occurrence in the child are the establishment of emotional contact with the adult, saturation with audible speech and organization of cooperation.
In its development, it takes place several stages .
First - Preparatory , or pre-verbal, when a child understands adult speech, but still does not know how to speak.
Second - transition , or the stage of speech. A characteristic feature of it is the emergence of an autonomous children's speech. The first children's words have a number of features: they reflect the situational attributes of objects, do not have a constant value, differ in a particular sound composition.
Third - stage of active speech , when real words appear, the grammatical structure of the language is rapidly mastered, quickly the vocabulary is increased.
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