The internalistic and externalistic grounds for constructing...

Internalistic and externalistic grounds for constructing didactic systems

The two conceptual models of the content of education presented above, in spite of these differences, are similar to the fact that they are both oriented toward a didactic system that has roots in the authoritarian model of the educational process. As is known, in it the teaching process dominates the process of teaching, which gives the teacher the right to act in the dominant (almost dictatorial) role. He on behalf of society determines what to teach - "thoughts or thinking". Both these concepts of the content of education are largely oriented not to a living, real, unlike the other student, but to some average preschooler, schoolboy, or student.

Such a student can not be torn away from the modern cultural and historical situation. In this case, we are not talking about a special "entourage of the era" (computers, children's TV shows, etc.), but about the global change in the status of childhood and human education in the culture system of modern civilization. In modern culture, the idea that childhood is not a preparation for life, just as life is not a preparation for death, all sounds clearer.

The idea of ​​the independent value of childhood manifested itself in the form of a tendency, then formed into relatively harmonious philosophical and psychological teachings. They had a real impact on the content of education at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. and are associated with the approval and dissemination of the theory of "free education" and the emergence of humanistic psychology.

The psychological and pedagogical aspects of the development of the content of education are largely determined by who among the two main participants in the educational process - the teacher or the student - is considered to be the central acting figure. According to this principle, specialists for a long time are divided into three groups: externalists, internalists and numerous supporters of the integration of these two polar approaches. Supporters of externalism believe that the formation of the student's personality is completely determined by the environment and, first of all, by the activity specially organized by the teacher. Therefore, the teacher is the main figure in education. The internalists, on the contrary, insist that the child should be at the center of the educational process. Since most specialists are disgusted by extreme points of view, a significant part of them seek to find a third solution - a reasonable combination of externalistic and iterialistic approaches.

According to the externalists, in education "everything begins with the teacher". He is the main figure in the educational process and on what tone, what direction, what style the educator ascribes to the educational activity, both the process and the result of the training depend on the law. The internalists stand on exactly the opposite positions, they tend to regard as the main figurant of the educational activity of the student himself. It is the learner, in their opinion, who must determine both the content and methods of instruction. Advocates of a combination of externalistic and internalist approaches try to build their models of the content of education by integrating these points of view.

In accordance with this division, three main didactic systems are built: externalist, internal and mixed (pretending to be called "modern"), The didactic system is usually understood as a set of organizational principles, content, methods and training tools that form an integral structure that obeys achievement of learning goals accepted by society.

So, for example, classical or traditional training, despite the fact that in its channel there are countless ideas and concepts that can be represented in the form of many different streams and rivers, was traditionally built on the idea that the process of teaching in education dominates the process of learning. Therefore, the teacher is the main figure in the educational process.

One of the most brilliant and consistent ideologists of this direction is the German philosopher, psychologist and pedagogue Johann Friedrich Herbart. The internalist model was embodied in research and educational practice a little later - at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Its design on the conceptual level is usually associated with the name of the American philosopher, psychologist and educator John Dewey.

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