The law of minimum - Pedagogy. Theoretical pedagogy

5.6. The law of minimum

Different ways are science to the formulation of its laws and laws. One of them is the method of internal analogies, still little studied, but has already proved its viability in various branches of knowledge.

Long-term studies of the complex influence of factors led to the creation of a visual spatial model of the productivity of the educational process, the study of which made it possible to reach the theoretical formulation of the law of influence of the smallest (minimal) factor.

What determines the quantity and quality of the pedagogical product? Let us recall the essence of the factors. They are understood as compelling reasons on which the course and results of the educational process depend. There are many reasons: in the first approximation, we isolated them over 200. For the most important factors, the values ​​and forms of influence on the final result were established, which allowed us to enter the computer diagnostics of the pedagogical process. Practical possibility of fast reception of detailed diagnostic cards has opened. The procedure and results are discussed below. But now, nevertheless, open the book on the page where the diagnostic map is shown. It shows the factors in the form of columns of different heights, corresponding to the degree of their influence.

We put mental experience, or, if you want, execute it in kind. We take the diagnostic map printed on the sheet and turn it into a tube. The ends are glued together. Pasting the bottom. We got a cylinder, something like a bucket or barrel. Only the upper edge of this vessel was uneven, composed of columns of different heights (Figure 20).


1. Number of students in class

13. Time of perception (study) of knowledge

2. Performance

14. Time of practical application

3. Interest

15. Study control time

4. The need to learn

16. Time to commit and summarize

5. Performance

17. Scope of control

6. Activity

18. Periodicity of control

7. Care

19. Didactic tools and TCO

8. Learning to learn

20. Technology and Methods

9. Scope of Knowledge

21. Cooperation, cooperation

10. Difficulty of knowledge

22 Doing your homework

11. Teacher's performance

23. Class, age of learners

12. Required level of education

24. Aim, problems of education

Fig. 20. A visual model of the importance of factors

It's hard to imagine that someone began to make a barrel with uneven upper edges. (Recall, the barrel is an old United States measure of the volume of liquids, equal to 40 buckets, 491.96 liters.) The barrel is made up of riveting - narrow planks. We have obtained the "pedagogical barrel", which simulates the educational process, and is made up of narrow table-factors of different heights.

Education, upbringing, human development is filling the hereditary program with missing information for life. From birth, the program contains only the primary set of instincts necessary for survival, and then it is filled throughout the life with the necessary knowledge, skills, ways of thinking and activity. At one time people were trained in a natural way, the filling of free areas of the hereditary program went on for a long time, now schools are being invented to facilitate and accelerate this process, where programs are filled in in an organized, fast and high-quality way, although not always in accordance with the students' requests. Schooling is the filling of free areas of a hereditary program.

Ancient allegories explained the training of a growing man as filling an "empty vessel", writing knowledge on a "clean chalkboard". These simple, intuitive and understandable concepts find modern scientific evidence: yes, the "filling" the hereditary program does occur, and the more knowledge, skills remain "in the vessel," the better the process goes, the more productivity it has. The analogy of the pedagogical process as the "filling of the vessel", although somewhat coarse, does not shock us, we are already ready for such an explanation. Barrel - a visual model of the formed product, where the total height of the vessel determines its value, the height of each "riveting" corresponds to the influence of an individual cause.

How much pedagogical fluid will fit in our "barrel", composed of clap factors of different heights? Or, to put it in modern pedagogical language, what is the productivity of a process based on diverse and multilevel factors? Success depends on all causes. In our model, the maximum possible result will be limited to the edge of the highest riveting, and actually obtained - along the edge of the lowest. The difference between them will show the size of the shortfall. Now it is clear: if you diligently increase the height of not the lowest "riveting", but all others, the result will not increase. Productivity depends on the height (intensity of influence) of the smallest (minimum) factor. To raise it, you should increase this factor.

Of course, in practice everything is much more complicated. Nevertheless, the analogy, and, mainly, the ideas about the mechanisms of formation of the pedagogical product, which are mainly available in science, lead us to the following conclusions:

1) the size and nature of the product of training is set by the target setting of the formation of an educated person: in the ideal case this is a comprehensive and harmonious development, in a real - practically feasible and really achievable level;

2) the product, no matter how complex it may be, is formed element-wise, and the most important is not the individual parts, but their organic unity, representing a new quality;

3) the product of training is created by a complex effect of productogenic factors, and here the determining factor is not the factors themselves, or even their combinations and combinations, but the intensity of the action of various causes during the formation of the product;

4) the quantity and quality of the product depends on the magnitude of the acting factors and can be determined by measuring them and integrating their joint influence;

5) the greatest influence on the formation of the product has a permanent and the most significant learning factors.

The productivity of the pedagogical process depends primarily on the factor that is present in the minimum quantity, the value of which is the least. So we go to the concept of the "minimum factor". It is he who plays the decisive role. In vain we would increase the importance of other factors - we will not get a higher result, all our efforts will "emerge" Through a hole punched by an insufficiently formed quality. The minimum factor fundamentally limits the level of training. Of course, each student has his own: someone - inattention, someone - thinking, someone - perseverance or efficiency. The minimum factor is the student's personal problem. Without raising its value, it is useless to hope for a better result. To establish what kind of factor is the most important task of practical diagnosis. Taking into account the effect of the minimum factor, we can confidently predict the development of the process and its results.

The productivity of the educational process is determined by the minimum factor

The principle of the minimum factor takes place and operates in many aspects of human existence. For example, no matter how healthy all the internal organs of a person are, one is enough to make a person feel sick and even die. The level of health is the state of the sickest organ. The same minimum factor. Similarly, in a TV or car: one low-quality part is enough to ensure that the overall reliability of the device is not high. Right were the ancient sages - the strongest chain is never stronger than its weakest link.

Based on the law of the minimum factor, it is easy to explain the reasons for all pedagogical miscalculations. Wherever they took place, the teacher did not build up those factors that were minimal. For example, a student has no attentiveness, and the teacher stubbornly increases the number of repetitions or tries to mobilize thinking where it would be necessary to form the ability to learn. The conclusion is obvious: you need to carefully diagnose the quality necessary for successful training, determine which ones are formed worse than others, and then bring them to the proper level.

When discussing the law in academia, comments were made about the pupil's ability to compensate, to cover the insufficient level of some factors by increasing the actions of others. For example, a student may have an insufficient level of abilities, but be extremely diligent at the same time, and this factor compensates for the lack of abilities. Factors seem to unite: the level of one rises, the other decreases somewhat. But the essence of the law does not change: always some factor or combination of factors will have lower (minimum) values ​​compared to others.

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