1.3. Main categories of pedagogy
Basic pedagogical concepts, expressing scientific generalizations, is also called pedagogical categories. The main pedagogical categories are Education, training, education. Our science extensively operates also general scientific categories, such as development and < strong> formation.
There are at least five variants (aspects) of a meaningful interpretation of pedagogical categories. Each of them should be considered as: 1) public and personal value; 2) objectively existing phenomenon; 3) real process, 4) an organized system; 5) the achieved result. If you follow this logic, you can achieve clarity and a deep understanding of the essence, but then our pedagogy grows to unimaginable dimensions. Constantly mindful of the enormous complexity of the categories, we will consider them in each specific case from an angle of practical importance for pedagogical work.
In general philosophical sense education is the adaptation of a person to the conditions of life. If a person has adapted, survived and continues to live - he is brought up. This upbringing will last him for the rest of his life. Another question is what kind of life this will be. Education - this is a way for a person to improve himself and his life, this is an indispensable part of his life and a condition of existence.
Pedagogical interpretations of education somewhat narrow his general philosophical interpretation and emphasize in the definition of this concept only those circumstances that depend on pedagogy. Education is a purposeful and organized process of personality formation. In pedagogy, the concept of upbringing is used in a broad and narrow social sense, as well as in a broad and narrow pedagogical meaning.
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In broad social sense upbringing is transfer of accumulated experience from the older generations to the younger ones. By experience means knowledge, skills, ways of thinking, moral, ethical, legal norms, in short, all the spiritual heritage of mankind created in the process of historical development strong> Everyone who comes to this world is attached to the achievements of civilization; this is achieved by upbringing. The United States root "nourish", from which the word "upbringing" is formed, perfectly conveys the vital necessity of education, and the prefix "ascending" ("up", "height") indicates the superiority of the educated person.
Humanity survived, grew stronger and reached a modern level of development through education, thanks to the fact that the experience gained by previous generations was used and multiplied by subsequent ones. History knows cases when the experience was lost, the life-giving river of education was drying up. People were thrown back far behind in their development and had to re-establish the lost links in their culture; bitter fate and hard work awaited these people.
The historical process of the development of society conclusively proves that the great successes in its development have always been achieved by those people whose education was better. Education - the engine of the social process.
Education has a historical character. It arose together with human society, becoming an organic part of its life and development, and will exist as long as society exists. That is why upbringing is a common and eternal category.
Many philosophers, analyzing the laws governing social life, establish an objective relationship between upbringing and the level of development of the productive forces of society. Education influences the development of society, in turn, society provides opportunities for the implementation of education. The direction, volume, character of upbringing correspond to the level of development of productive forces and the type of production relations, therefore education has a specific historical character.
Changing the type of socio-economic formation entails a change in the nature of education. With the change in social relations, the goals, tasks, forms and organization of upbringing change radically. Social living conditions also change the nature of upbringing and its impact on people's consciousness and behavior.
With the appearance of classes in the classroom, upbringing acquires a class character. It begins to serve the ruling class, which determines its direction, goals, content and forms. When good upbringing becomes an expensive pleasure, inaccessible to all people in society, it becomes a discrimination tool of people, a means of exaggerating some over others.
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