The main characteristics of pedagogical activity, the subject...

The main characteristics of pedagogical activity

Pedagogical activity can be defined as the interaction of a teacher and a pupil, aimed at its socialization. The concept of socialization in this context includes the personal, cognitive and psychophysical development of the pupil, necessary for its entry into the cultural context. Like other types of socio-cultural practices of a person, pedagogical activity is characterized by motivation, goals and ways to achieve them. Especially significant parameters of pedagogical activity are traditionally its productivity and effectiveness.

In modern psychology, the productivity of pedagogical activity is usually considered in two ways: from the point of view of the level and from the point of view of style approaches. So, for example, the most typical solution for the level approach was proposed in the works of the well-known psychologist NV Kuzmina. She suggests and considers five theoretically possible levels of mastery of pedagogical activity:

1) minimal - unproductive;

2) low - unproductive;

3) Medium - medium-productive;

4) high - productive;

5) the highest - highly productive.

In principle, this problem is solved in the framework of the style approach. Nowadays, he has become a serious and very attractive alternative to the level approach, because he proposed other forms of analysis of the person's mental and activity capabilities. The style approach for the first time has been stated and proposed the possibility of transition in the assessment of individual mental differences in activity from unipolar to bipolar indicators, from criteria of level (low/high) - to typological criteria.

The style approach assumes that the main thing in individual differences manifested in one or another activity is not the fixation of the one who does more, but how the solution is achieved. Someone does everything quickly, but it can be made not very high-quality, someone works slowly, but achieves greater depth; someone is impulsive, and someone on the contrary is reflexive, etc. Therefore, it is not always right to say - "who is better, who is worse", but it is quite legitimate to say that under certain conditions one will be more effective, and in another conditions another. Each of these typological (style) features in different life situations will create either advantages or hindrances.

Both within the framework of the level and within the style approach, one of the key issues is the effectiveness or effectiveness of pedagogical activity. For a long time, the effectiveness of the teacher's activity was assessed by the amount of knowledge acquired by his students, skills and habits, and also by the levels of upbringing of pupils. At the present time, other trends are becoming more pronounced: the effectiveness of pedagogical activity is largely determined by the extent to which it is capable of giving impetus to self-education, self-education, self-development and personal self-improvement.

Subject Content and Structure of Teaching Activities

Pedagogical activity is determined by the subject content and structure, which includes: motivation, goals, subject, means, methods, product and result. Motivation is one of the most important characteristics that determine the direction, nature and degree of effectiveness of pedagogical activity. The goals and tasks of pedagogical activity determine its character. On the one hand, they are defined by culture, on the other hand they are formulated personally by teachers and, as the history of civilization shows, usually they are not always clearly verbalized. The subject of pedagogical activity, as already noted, is broader than the tasks of instruction and is determined by the mission of the teacher in culture - the need for the socialization of the younger generations and the progressive personal and professional development of adults.

Special attention of pedagogical psychology deserves also the means of pedagogical activity. They are improving relatively slowly, but every new step in their development leads to revolutionary changes not only in the activity of educational systems, but also in the correction of the processes of socialization of the individual as a whole. Thus, the presence in the arsenal of teachers of verbal and non-verbal means of individual and group action, with the passage of millennia, was supplemented by writing, i.e. the possibility of accumulating and translating the experience accumulated by man is not limited to "by word of mouth", but indirectly, through handwritten texts. Further, apparently seemingly exclusively a technical achievement - the appearance of printing, has made another revolution in pedagogical activity, education and training. There are many milestones in the history of civilization. One of the last and very significant ones is the emergence of a computer in the arsenal of educators and their pupils and the widespread introduction of electronic mass media and computer networks into the culture. The funds greatly influence the product of pedagogical activity, as well as its results.

The effectiveness of the activity is traditionally judged on the quality of the product received. Under the product and effectiveness of pedagogical activity, one must understand the individual experience of a developing personality in the broadest sense of the word. Evaluation of the quality of the product of pedagogical activity is extremely complicated. This complexity is largely due to the multifactority of pedagogical influences and the difficulty in differentiating the degree of significance of the pedagogical contributions of various factors, and also because many of these effects give results not immediately, but only after a time.

Even the evaluation of the activities of educational systems and individual educational institutions has caused and continues to generate disputes among specialists and lay people. At first glance, it may seem that it is quite easy to evaluate how effectively an educational institution works in terms of education. But practice shows that this is one of the most difficult and still unsatisfactory problems to be solved. At different times, many outstanding pedagogues and psychologists have been engaged in research in this direction. KD Ushinsky paid special attention to these issues, and this problem has been specially studied for many years in the laboratory of the French psychologist A. Binet. Much attention was paid to these questions by psychologists and teachers in the 20th century. However, they have been and remain the subject of continuing disputes in our time, which is only an attempt to introduce in our country a system independent of the administration and school teachers, assessing the quality of their activities - a single state exam.

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