The main ideas of multicultural education in Western Europe
The history of Western European multicultural education.
In the past 50 years, most Western European countries have differently addressed the problems of cultural heterogeneity caused by the growth of immigration. European authors identify a number of stages in the development of multicultural education. Factors of actualization and the main mechanisms for the development of multicultural education in Western Europe are discussed below based on the work of European researchers (A. Porter, etc.). It should be borne in mind that in European official documents, education that takes cultural diversity into account and prepares students for intercultural interaction has been called "intercultural education" (intercultural education).
The first stage (late 1950's - early 1970's) can be called bicultural. In the 1960s. after economic miracle 1950s, which caused a sharp influx of migrant workers in a number of European countries, educators and politicians focused on overcoming linguistic problems in the education system. On the one hand, certain measures have been applied to organize the study of migrants by the languages of new countries for them, and on the other, much attention has been paid to enabling children to "save" their native language so that at any time it is possible for them to return to their home country. At that time, numerous projects were realized, which in general can be called multicultural, as their goal was to inform about the similarities and differences in different languages, religions, cultures.
The second stage (1970s) is characterized by the emergence of two new trends. First, the direction was developed
Special adaptation of foreign children through education - migrant pedagogy (Ausl 'nderp & acut; dagogik), or pedagogy of reception (P & e dagogie d'accueil) through the development of separate mediation measures. However, this direction was increasingly criticized for its assimilating, or compensating nature.
Secondly, the approach of simultaneous pedagogical support was developed: a) integration of foreign children into the culture of the new country and b) support of cultural and linguistic links with the country of origin. This approach, formally adopted at a meeting of the Council of Europe ministers in 1970 and requiring uniformity in the teaching of migrant workers' children in public schools (Council of Europe Resolution No. 35), has received the name of a double track strategy. Further conferences of Ministers of the Council of Europe (in Berne in 1973, Strasbourg in 1974, Stockholm in 1975, Oslo in 1976) also addressed issues related to the education of migrant workers and their children, and confirmed the need to preserve in the field of education ties with countries of origin and mastering their mother tongues.
The third stage (late 1970's - late 1980's) is associated with the work of the group led by L. Porscher and M. Ray (M. Rey) on the development of methods and strategies for teaching teachers in Europe in 1977-1983. This group, discussing the issues of teaching migrant children, introduced a concept that characterizes the active interaction of indigenous and visiting cultures - "intercultural education". In 1983, following the results of the conference of the European Ministers of Education in Dublin, the concept of "intercultural education" became an official term in the countries of the European Union. The following year, an instruction was issued to train teachers based on intercultural communication. Since the mid-1980s. The Council of Europe began supporting numerous educational projects, including the term "intercultural". Thus, in the 1980s. in Europe the policy of "intercultural education" began to be formed.
In 1984, the International Association for Intercultural Education, , (), was formed to unite scientists and teachers of various disciplines to promote the intercultural educational approach in academic and teaching environments through the organization of conferences and seminars, as well as through the review and publication of scientific articles in the academic journal "Intercultural Education" (Intercultural education).
The fourth stage, started in the 1990s. and continuing to the present day, is characterized by the fact that in Europe the concepts of "intercultural education" and intercultural pedagogy officially recognized as the most appropriate for the situation of growing diversity of cultures, religions, languages, forms of behavior and thinking. According to L. Porter, the concept of intercultural education is "revolutionary Copernican character", since it radically shifts the pedagogical position. For the first time, migration and the growth of the cultural diversity of society began to be noted not as a great risk to be overcome, but as real resources for development. For the first time within the member states of the European Union, the education of children of foreign origin could be undertaken in terms of the dynamic nature of different cultures and the corresponding personal identities. For the first time in the history of pedagogy, the children of foreigners were more regarded not as a "problem", or "children of risk", but as a resource. The importance of uniting people from various ethnic, cultural and religious groups and for social development, and for the personal growth of everyone was officially recognized.
In the late 1990s. In Europe, the notion transcultural education (transcultural education), which appealed to the supracultural education - in this sense, educational strategies sought to develop universal universal elements, for example, values of respect, peace, justice, environmental protection, human dignity, autonomy, etc. With all the indisputable advantages of transcultural education, it proceeded from the fact that the world seems unrealistically uniform, while in reality the modern world is very heterogeneous and fragmented.
The danger of the transcultural education that is being persistently introduced in Europe is that the specific social and cultural identity of each person is lost. In addition, transcultural education can be a form of cultural imperialism, through which Europe or the Western world seek to impose its values on the rest of the world. Another possible danger of transcultural education is the danger of stagnation: the ongoing processes of social change are ignored, and actual cultural differences are not taken into account. One consequence may also be the actual promotion of the pedagogy of minority assimilation.
In this regard, poly- and intercultural education has become adequate to reflect the diversity of cultures. Intercultural education includes all the positive aspects of transcultural pedagogy, but simultaneously takes into account all the dangers. Intercultural education is as it were between two poles and includes parts of these poles in a single category: on the one hand it is a transcultural education - universalism, on the other - pluricultural education - relativism.
Also We Can Offer!
- Argumentative essay
- Best college essays
- Buy custom essays online
- Buy essay online
- Cheap essay
- Cheap essay writing service
- Cheap writing service
- College essay
- College essay introduction
- College essay writing service
- Compare and contrast essay
- Custom essay
- Custom essay writing service
- Custom essays writing services
- Death penalty essay
- Do my essay
- Essay about love
- Essay about yourself
- Essay help
- Essay writing help
- Essay writing service reviews
- Essays online
- Fast food essay
- George orwell essays
- Human rights essay
- Narrative essay
- Pay to write essay
- Personal essay for college
- Personal narrative essay
- Persuasive writing
- Write my essay
- Write my essay for me cheap
- Writing a scholarship essay