The content of pedagogical activity
Peculiarities of pedagogical activity
The person's belonging to one or another profession is manifested in the features of his activity and way of thinking. According to the classification proposed by EA Klimov, the pedagogical profession refers to a group of professions the subject of which is another person. But the pedagogical profession is selected from a number of others primarily in the manner of the thoughts of its representatives, an increased sense of duty and responsibility. In this regard, the pedagogical profession stands apart, standing out in a separate group. Its main difference from other professions such as "man-man"; is that it relates both to the class of transforming and to the class of supervising professions at the same time. Having as the goal of his activity the formation and transformation of personality, the teacher is called upon to control the process of her intellectual, emotional and physical development, the formation of her spiritual world.
The main content of the pedagogical profession is the relationship with people. Activities of other representatives of the professions of the Tina "man-man"; also requires interaction with people, but here it is due to the fact that the best way to understand and satisfy the needs of a person. In the profession of the teacher, the leading task is to understand the social goals and direct the efforts of other people to achieve them.
Thus, one of the peculiarities of pedagogical activity is that its object has a dual nature (AK Markova): on the one hand it is a child, a pupil in all the richness of his life activity, on the other, these are elements of social culture , which the teacher owns and which serve as a "building material" for the formation of personality. This dual nature of the pedagogical activity often leads to the fact that the young teacher inadequately understands the subject sphere of his activity, in the center of which the child is located, and unjustifiably reduces (reduces) it to work with teaching material, to preparing and conducting lessons, forgetting that the latter - Only an instrument of pedagogical activity, and not the essence of it. Therefore, the pedagogical profession requires a complex preparation of the teacher - general cultural, human studies and special.
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Q. A. Slastenin, as the main specific features of the pedagogical profession, singles out its humanistic, collective and creative character.The humanistic function of the teacher's work is primarily connected with the development of the child's personality, his creative individuality, with the recognition of the right of a developing personality to be a subject of joint activity. All the activity of the teacher should be directed not only at helping the child in meeting the challenges that lie ahead of him today, but also in preparing him for independent achievement of new, complex, promising goals that determine the way for his further development.
The collective nature of pedagogical activity. If in other occupations of the group "man-man the result, as a rule, is the product of the activity of one person - a representative of the profession (for example, a seller, a doctor, a librarian, etc.), in the pedagogical profession it is very difficult to single out the contribution of each teacher, family and other sources of influence in the development of the personality of the pupil. That is why today people are increasingly talking about the aggregate (collective) subject of pedagogical activity.
In psychology, the collective entity Is an interdependent and interdependent group of people engaged in joint activities.
The cumulative (collective) subject of pedagogical activity in a broad sense is understood as the pedagogical collective of a school or other educational institution, and in a narrower sense the circle of those teachers who are directly related to a group of students or an individual student.
The main characteristics of a collective subject are interconnectedness and interdependence, joint activity and group self-reflection.
Interdependence in the pedagogical team contributes to the formation of pre-activity, i.e. the formation of motivation to achieve a common goal, the formation of a general pedagogical orientation, in other words, the formation of teachers who are like-minded. Like minded does not mean giving up personal views and pedagogical methods. ... Like-minded people are people who think about one thing, but think differently, ambiguously, solve the questions of this one in their own way, from the standpoint of their views, on the basis of their discoveries. The more shades within a human community, the more vital it is. Therefore, the more the thoughts of teachers about the one case will vary, the deeper and more diverse this one case will be realized.
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Joint activity as a characteristic of a collective subject implies not only joint activities, but also joint communication, communication, group behavior, intragroup relations. Pedagogical activity is impossible without the exchange of experience, without discussions and disputes, without asserting one's own pedagogical position. The pedagogical collective is always a collective of people of different ages, different professional and social experience, and pedagogical interaction involves communication and relationships not only with colleagues, but also with students and their parents. Therefore, only if the pedagogical collective becomes a collective subject, it is able to translate existing contradictions into constructive joint activity, and not turn them into a permanent conflict. A. Makarenko asserted: "The unity of the pedagogical collective is an absolutely determining thing, and the youngest, most inexperienced teacher in a single, welded collective headed by a good master-manager will do more than any experienced and talented teacher who runs counter to with a pedagogical team. Pet is nothing more dangerous than individualism and squabbling in the pedagogical collective, there is nothing more disgusting, there is nothing more harmful. "
The most important characteristic of a collective subject is the group's ability to self-reflection , as a result of which feelings are formed We (experiences of their belonging to the group and unification with it) and the image of We (a group view of their group, its evaluation). Such feelings and images can be formed only in collectives with their own history, traditions respecting the pedagogical experience accumulated by the older generation and open to new pedagogical search, able to give a critical, objective assessment of their professional activities.
Thus, the totality of the characteristics of the collective subject of pedagogical activity makes it possible to judge the psychological climate (atmosphere) in a pedagogical collective, on which the effectiveness of the teacher's work, his satisfaction with his own work, the possibility of self-actualization and self-actualization in the profession.
Pedagogical activity as a creative process. The most important and system-forming feature of pedagogical activity is its creative character.
Starting with the classics of pedagogy and ending with the latest research of pedagogical activity, all the authors somehow considered the activity of the educator-educator as a creative process. Most fully this problem is presented in the works of VA Kan-Kalika. He considers pedagogical creativity as the process of solving an infinite number of tasks in changing circumstances.
It should be noted that in any human activity there are elements of creativity, i.e. in any activity creative and uncreative (algorithmic) components necessarily combine. Algorithmic - assumes a standard situation, excluding freedom of choice in solving a problem. Creativity takes place when the method of activity is not set in advance, but determined by the subject of the activity in accordance with the peculiarities of the situation. However, the role of the creative component in different types of activity is significantly different. The algorithmic component of pedagogical activity is represented by a set of normative psycho-pedagogical knowledge and experience. However, they are used in constantly changing conditions, non-standard situations. So, a carefully elaborated summary of the lesson in the situation of the "living" communication with students invariably undergoes changes. This is the specificity of pedagogical creativity. VA Kan-Kalik and ND Nikandrov note that the very nature of pedagogical creative labor is characterized by a number of parameters that in the literal sense of the word have a normative character that does not at all exclude their heuristic origin but presupposes some knowledge this normativity. If this does not happen, the results of pedagogical creativity can not be sufficiently effective, just as one can not compose verses without knowing the technique of rhyme, size, etc. ". However, most researchers note that it is in pedagogical activity that the creative component prevails over the normative (algorithmic), since it requires a constant choice of the optimal variant of the solution of the pedagogical problem.
What is the difference between pedagogical creativity and creativity of scientific, technical, artistic? Answering this question, VI Zagvyazinsky pointed out the following peculiarities of the teacher's creativity.
1. Rigidly limited, compressed in time. "The teacher can not wait for him to" fall "", he must find the best method for the upcoming lesson today, and often make a new decision in the lesson in a matter of seconds if an unforeseen situation has developed. "
2. As pedagogical creativity is merged with the educational process, it must always yield positive results. Negative is permissible only in mental tests and estimates. "
3. Pedagogical creativity is always co-creation.
4. A significant part of the teacher's creativity is carried out in public, publicly (the ability to control his psychophysical state).
The result of pedagogical creativity is also specific. N. V. Kuzmina notes that the "products" pedagogical creativity is always a pedagogical innovation aimed at improving the pedagogical process or the pedagogical system as a whole. The sphere of pedagogical creativity, and, consequently, the appearance of pedagogical inventions is unusually broad. They can be both in the field of selection and composition of the content of information in educational and extracurricular activities, and in the selection and organization of various types of activities, in the creation of new forms and methods of teaching and upbringing, and in the ways of solving pedagogical tasks. However, most often indicate the subjectivity of novelty in pedagogical creativity (the discovery made by the teacher is important not so much for the pedagogical theory or practice as for him and his students in the course of solving a specific pedagogical task).
Pedagogical activity, being creative in its essence, requires each teacher to take a creative approach to his professional activities. However, the degree of creative realization of a particular teacher depends on his motives, personal qualities, individual abilities, level of knowledge, general cultural and professional experience. Therefore, pedagogical creativity can be realized at different levels. VA Kan-Kalik and ND Nikandrov singled out the following levels of pedagogical creativity.
1. Level of elementary interaction with the class. The feedback is used, the effects are adjusted but the results are corrected. But the teacher acts in accordance with the "&" method, but the template.
2. The level of optimization of activities in the lesson, starting with its planning. Creativity here consists in the skillful choice and appropriate combination of the contents, methods and forms of teaching already known to the teacher.
3. The level is heuristic. The teacher uses the creative opportunities of live communication with students.
4. The level of creativity (the highest) characterizes the teacher in complete independence. A teacher can use ready-made techniques, but invest in them a personal beginning. He works with them only insofar as they correspond to his creative individuality, the personality of the pupil, the specific level of learning, upbringing, the development of the class.
Thus, each teacher continues the work of his predecessors, but the teacher-creator sees wider and much further. He somehow transforms the pedagogical reality, but only the teacher-creator actively struggles for cardinal transformations and himself in this case is a good example.
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