The place and function of the game in the pedagogical diagnosis of the shortcomings of the personal development of younger schoolchildren
Diagnostics is an obligatory initial block in the work to correct the shortcomings of personal development and behavior of younger schoolchildren. It is desirable to organize diagnostics in such a way that it does not distract the teacher from performing his main training function and at the same time allows to collect information necessary for corrective-developing work. It is inappropriate for the teacher to conduct diagnostics solely on his own; It is also irrational to use cumbersome and complex diagnostic procedures. It will not be better if he completely transfers diagnostics to a school psychologist or decides to rely only on the information that the psychologist collected earlier. First, children change and these data could already become obsolete, and secondly, they may lack important nuances for the upcoming work. Therefore, it is most effective for the teacher, together with the psychologist, to make use of accessible and at the same time informative diagnostic methods, among which a significant role is played by projective play, observations and conversations.
Since the leading form of life activity of junior schoolchildren is teaching, and in corrective-developing work the game is involved, it is advisable to conduct observations of behavioral and personal manifestations of children in both educational and gaming activities. The results of observations and conversations the teacher fixes in the student's personal diagnostic map.
How to ...
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The first sheet of this card shows the name and surname of the student, his age, class and school, in which he studies, the dates of the 1st and 2nd examinations.
To help the teacher developed a table 7, reflecting the possible options for the behavior of younger students. On the contrary to each of the characteristics indicated on the left, the teacher indicates to what extent it is inherent in the child. To do this, there are three columns for the graded (3 - often , 2
Analyzing the results of observations, the teacher uses a special key that compares and ranks the collected information.
Based on the total amount of observations made, an individual profile of the development of the active-volitional component of a child's self-consciousness develops, in which all the data are collected in a comparative plan (see Appendix Table 8). In the central part of the table, which is a comparative scale of the degree of possession of the indicated behavioral skill (from +2 to -2), the teacher marks the place corresponding to the statement that most characterizes the level of development of a particular component of the student's self-awareness.
When completing Tables 7 and 8, the child's behavioral characteristics are taken into account, which manifest themselves in the lesson, on the change, during other regime moments, and also in the situation of projective play.
Projective play is a game action specially organized by the teacher. Since the participation of an adult in it is minimal (only a general guide), the children fall into a rather vague (multivalued) situation, which they independently transform according to their individuality. For example, they build the character and behavior of the game character in accordance with their personal characteristics or, in other words, project their personal characteristics onto the game character.
Observations made during the game also give a lot of information about the specifics of the relationship between children: peacefully or conflictually, roles are distributed and rules are discussed; whether there are differences in the adjustment of the plot; what features are characterized by experiences of successes and lesions, etc. Thanks to this analysis of the concept of behavior and personal properties of each child become more individualized and vivid. The informative nature of the projective game is largely due to the fact that its purpose is relatively disguised, and this reduces the child's ability to make the desired impression for him. The final stage of the survey is structured conversation with the child, which consists of five thematic series, in which the questions asked are aimed at identifying the child's ideas about himself. The answers to them reflect the level of development of the cognitive and emotional-value components of his self-awareness. The first question in each of the five series (/ and, 2and , Zi etc., where and - I -ideal) reveals the child's ideas about some ideal junior high school student. Since such ideas are based on the psychological mechanism of projection, they reflect not only the ideal image of a peer, but also the ideal image of oneself - "I" is ideal, i.e. what kind of child is not yet, but what could become. The second question of each series (//>, 2p y Sp etc., where p - I -real) - reveals the child's views of himself real. Asking the third question of each series (7c, 2c, 3c etc., where c is self-esteem), the teacher turns to the drawing and asks the child to place himself on one of the steps stairs, having previously estimated themselves according to the proposed parameter.
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Then, the degree of correspondence between the child's representations of the "I-ideal" and "I" -real, and also "I" -real and reality are compared. The latter in addition to the answer to the question is also fixed in the situation on certain steps of the ladder. After making such a comparison, the teacher makes a conclusion about whether the child has full and accurate ideas about himself, as well as the degree of reality of his self-esteem.
The generalization of observational data and conversation creates an opportunity for a fairly accurate judgment on the level of development of the child's self-awareness, inherent in his type of unconstructive behavior, reveals negative personality traits. This completes the diagnostic stage of the correction-development work.
The next stage begins with the fact that the teacher (possibly together with the psychologist) individually for each child in need of psychological and pedagogical assistance determines the direction, content and logic of the corrective action: will this be a correction of the scarce components of self-awareness, or the transformation of behavior, or relief of negative and the development of positive personality traits.
Experience shows that one should not try to influence simultaneously all the scarce factors. For example, it will be a mistake to include an impulsive child in a game in which he will immediately need both assiduity, and focused attention, and neatness. The impulsive child can not cope with the similar triune task entrusted to him. In such conditions, the corrective-developing effect will be minimal, and the game is unlikely to bring pleasure. Therefore, an important rule of the correctional-developing work is that games are first used, in which the parallel load is eliminated even for two deficit abilities. Having achieved increased restraint, accuracy, assiduity in games with a load on each of these abilities individually, one can proceed to games that require requirements for two abilities simultaneously in various combinations: restraint plus accuracy; neatness plus perseverance, etc.
Another, no less significant rule is the need for the educator to see the child's personal shortcomings and the problems that arise in the development of children's self-awareness are not generalized, but specifically. Vague characteristics such as "aggressive", "with inadequate self-esteem", "with weak self-control" etc. should be replaced by precise and, most importantly, informative judgments about specific behavioral phenomena: "evil malicious classmates", "fights with a neighbor on a desk", "always pretends to lead roles or to the role of presenter", "can not bring the started to end & quot ;. Such formulations, firstly, do not contain a negative evaluation of the child's personality. Secondly, it is possible to separate the attitude of the teacher to the child, which should be determined by unconditional acceptance, from the attitude to his concrete actions. And, thirdly, the child with the help of such specific statements is the easiest to understand, it is easier to understand what he can and should do, and how to behave not should be.
It is expedient to complete the planning of the forthcoming correction-development work by constructing the so-called "ladder of problems", on the bottom step of which there is the simplest, concrete and most attainable behavioral "target", and on each subsequent one target from a friend gradually increasing difficulty. Such a ladder should be graphically depicted on paper, which facilitates compliance with another important rule - the consistent solution of formulated problems. In other words, without hitting the "target" located on the first stage (for example, if you did not get a conformal child to participate in collective games with pleasure and voluntarily participate in collective games), you should not proceed to systematic work on the "target", standing on the second step (for example, to solve the problem of lack of initiative and the silence of the child).
The teacher should not be worried about the temporary inattention to other behavioral and personal shortcomings of the child, since this approach (step by step) first of all significantly saves the child's strengths, and also eliminates the conflicts and frustrations inevitably caused by the abundance of demands. The latter, in turn, contributes to the fact that some shortcomings disappear on their own.
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