The policy of cross-cultural education of the European Union...

Policy of the cross-cultural education of the European Union

Creating a transnational educational space

In Western Europe, the world's largest transnational educational facility emerged at the pull of the last 50 years. This happened in the conditions of radical demographic changes that led to the fact that the population of Western Europe became much more colorful in terms of culture and ethnicity. None of the Western European countries is an exception in this sense.

The creation of a common space, the education of the European consciousness is one of the main vectors of integration in the sphere of education.

The engines of such a policy are the various structures of the European Union, primarily the Council of Europe, the permanent Conference of Ministers of Education. In the construction of the "European house" The school and pedagogical science take an active part. The movement in this direction is supported by scientific and public institutions: the European Foundation for Culture, the European Association of Teachers, the European Network for Educational Research, the European Society for Comparative Education, the International Pedagogical Club of the European capitals and others

The EU policy provides for the formation of a citizen of Europe on the basis of dialogue and cooperation of participants in integration processes. The idea of ​​educating a new identity means that the inhabitants of Western Europe should realize themselves not only as separate ethnic groups, but above all Europeans, who are connected by the historical and cultural roots of one civilization.

In conditions of multi-ethnicity and multiculturalism, special emphasis is placed on coordinated solutions to the problems of education and training. As a matter of fact, a powerful federation appears on the multinational space of the EU, an important instrument for the creation of which is association in the sphere of education. The beginning of this process dates back to the middle of the last century. In 1954, the Council of Europe adopted the "European Cultural Convention", which stressed the priority role of education in the development of European culture. In the future, the Council of Europe adopts new documents, where each such strategic objective is emphasized. In accordance with this goal, more specific political tasks are formulated. The subject of recommendations on the conduct of a unified pedagogical policy is extremely extensive: the fight against racism and xenophobia, the cultivation of religious tolerance, the equality of the sexes in education, etc.

European integration sharply updates the objectives of education in a multi-ethnic society. In the united Europe, new social problems arise, connected with the complication of the phenomenon of cultural and ethnic diversity. Preserving the preferences and priorities of the cultural and educational interests of superethnoses can mean a reduction in the opportunities to develop and enrich through the formation of the languages ​​and cultures of ethnic minorities. The topicality of cooperation in the sphere of culture and education of representatives of large and small ethnic groups, Europeans and non-Europeans, Christians and Muslims, immigrants and autochthons is growing (Table 2.2).

Table 2.2

Decisions of supranational European bodies on the organization of intercultural dialogue in education

Year

Document

Excerpts from documents

1975

Resolution of the 13th Committee of Ministers

Recommends ... measures ... aimed at: 4. Preserving the cultural heritage and identity of nomads. 5. Helping them to get an education

1976

Recommendation of the Council of Ministers of the Council of Europe

... To make efforts, with the assistance of the homeland of immigrants, to educate their children in their native language and to attach themselves to their native culture "

1977

CE Directive

... To take measures, with the assistance of the country of origin, to teach children of immigrant workers their native language and culture "

1981

Recommendation R (928) CE

On the problems of education and culture of the national minorities of Europe "recommends a gradual transition to teaching children in their native language"

1983

Resolution of the European Parliament

Calls for measures to protect minority languages ​​

1984

Recommendation R (84) CE

... To make the intercultural aspect part of teacher training

1985

Recommendation R (85) CE

... Promote the learning and study of human rights ... in the school curriculum that includes intercultural understanding ... "

1986

Project No. 7 CE

Education and cultural development of immigrants. Consider the characteristics of immigrants as "carriers of cultures", "reproduce and develop their identity"

1996

CE Project "Secondary Education for Europe"

Among the key competencies required by each person: "competencies related to life in a multi-cultural society." In order to prevent the emergence of racism or xenophobia, the spread of a climate of intolerance, education must "equip" young people with intercultural competencies, such as: understanding differences, respecting each other, the ability to live with people of other cultures, languages ​​and religions "

2003

Declaration of the Permanent Conference of European Ministers of Education & "Intercultural Education in a New European Context"

Expressed "the determination to adopt measures but intercultural education as an important component of the education policy" and "provide for appropriate measures at the level of curricula, school management and teacher training"

The school policy of the European Union concerning cultural and ethnic diversity is related to the need to respond to the cultural and educational needs of representatives of regional and transnational small autochthonous cultures. The first include Corsicans, Bretons, Catalans, Provencals, Alsatians, Welsh, Irish, Scots, etc. To the second, for example, Basques and Gypsies. Thus, there are at least 12 million Gypsies, and this is the most numerous small autochthonous group. Another problem of the policy of multiculturalism, perhaps the most acute at the present time, has arisen because of the appearance of millions of new immigrants - carriers of many subcultures.

The building of new relations with ethno-cultural minorities is the most important direction of the European Union's pedagogical policy. Over the past 50 years, the ruling elites of Western Europe have moved from imperial ambitions about national minorities to recognition of their right to decent and special education and training. Two approaches to the education of small ethno-cultural groups coexist in political circles: the adaptation and support of cultural and educational interests. The main strategic reference point remains integration into the culture of the dominant nation.

Consideration of the interests of ethnic minorities in education is proclaimed the official course of the European Union. The EU initiates a cross-cultural education for minorities. The beginning of such a strategy is laid by the project "Education and cultural development of migrants" 1980. Further, the statement "On the problems of the education and culture of the national minorities of Europe", the report "Education for All", which proclaims the principles of pluralism, aimed at preserving the original cultures of national minorities and fostering awareness of belonging to these cultures, is subsequently adopted. Since 1998, the "CE Convention" is in effect, which confirms the right of national minorities to preserve cultural identity, in particular, to study their native language.

The European policy provides pedagogical support for ethnic minorities. Three main directions of such support are identified: compensatory, differentiated training; bilingual education; cultural dialogue with students - representatives of leading ethnic groups.

Recommendations and directives of the Council of Europe and the European Union on cross-cultural education are still far from systematic implementation. Contrary to the European documents and declarations, the introduction of such education is not given due attention and its prospects are considered rather restrained. Relevant projects are pushed into the background. There is no systematic effort to preserve the culture of small ethnic groups, especially immigrant communities. Often the case is limited to an application, followed by insignificant real measures.

Opponents of cross-cultural education are part of the ruling elites, a number of leaders of indigenous minor ethnic groups, as well as ideologists of immigrants, especially Muslims.

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