The position of nonviolence and the psychological conditions...

2.3. The position of nonviolence and the psychological conditions for its adoption

2.3.1. General characteristics of the non-violence position

Non-violence position is the basic concept in the psychology of nonviolence and serves as the basis for the implementation of non-violent interaction and prosocial (socially approved) behavior in general.

The position in psychology is understood in two aspects. First, this position of a person in the social structure or the system of interpersonal relations, which regulates the behavior and actions of the individual. Secondly, it is a system of views, attitudes, values, motives through which the individual's relations are expressed to various aspects of reality. These aspects are not isolated, they are closely related to each other, differing only in that they reflect different aspects of the structural organization of man as a whole.

In modern psychology, three levels of human organization are distinguished: a biological individual, a social individual and a person. As noted by V.V. Stolin [19], a biological individual is characterized by a certain constitution, type of nervous system, neurodynamic properties of the brain, various biological needs. The social individual is the ability to master the world around him, to master the diverse knowledge, skills, norms and rules of behavior. Personality - the ability to make choices, build your own way of life, correlate your "I" and coordinate their own behavior in the system of relations with the environment. From this understanding, it follows that the first meaning of the position characterizes mainly the person as a social individual, the second as an individual.

If, at the level of a social individual, the position of nonviolence acts as the internal acceptance of the corresponding social position (position), which is possible only when the surrounding conditions are created, then at the level of the individual, this is a special system of views, values, motives, attitudes as a result of acceptance and assimilation of nonviolence as a value. In other words, the position of nonviolence as a personal education is a system of views, values, attitudes, motives, where the person's desire to build relationships with other people, nature, the world as a whole on a non-violent basis, without open and hidden forms of coercion, which is achieved through free and responsible choice, the ability to commit non-violent actions and provide non-violent resistance.

The position of nonviolence includes motivational, cognitive, emotional and behavioral components.

Motivational-value component is associated with the assimilation of nonviolence as a universal value, determines the semantic component of the position of nonviolence. If we consider the first part of this characteristic, namely the motivational aspect, then two components are emerging: the unconscious and the conscious. In real practice, we often encounter people who are kind by nature and are not capable of causing harm to others, that is, they are not capable of violent actions, although nothing has been heard about the theory and practice of nonviolence. Kindness from Nature Is a figure of a word. Of course, a good person or evil depends on education, on the social conditions that he falls into. Nevertheless, at the unconscious level, there may be some attitude toward nonviolence, which determines the behavior of the individual. The conscious motives of nonviolent behavior are formed on the basis of the assimilation of nonviolence as a certain value, which becomes the inner driving force of man. Thus, here a cognitive component is inserted, based on deep reflections on life and its meaning, its place in the world, its reactions and relationships with people. As a result, an act of nonviolence takes place, not only as an abstraction, but also as an internalized (internally acquired) disposition that grows into a person's conviction.

The cognitive component is expressed, on the one hand, in a conscious refusal to intend to perform coercive actions, on the other hand, in understanding the need to perform strictly non-violent actions, the essence of which is to support or strengthen the personality of another person. In other words, at every particular moment in your life, especially in situations related to the need to perform coercive action, an intellectual dilemma arises before the individual, what decision to take: to commit non-violent action or resort to coercion.

The emotional component presupposes the subject's ability to overcome his irritability and resentment, which can develop under adverse conditions into suspicion, hostility and aggression, and when working on oneself - in confidence and emotional stability. Coping with emotions can be very difficult. This fact was pointed out by many religious figures and philosophers of the past. Emotional stability, the ability to keep a clear mind in a complex and stressful situation has always been considered the highest virtue and ability that distinguishes man from animals.

The behavioral component, as well as the methods of non-violent communication, acquire special significance in the structure of the non-violence position. Ultimately, it is not important what the person thinks or what emotions he is experiencing, but how he acts, how he behaves in a particular situation. The non-accidentally famous domestic psychologist AN Leontiev said that the beginning of personality is an act, and even published an article under this title. The act, in turn, is a conscious action, valued as an act of a person's moral self-determination, in which he claims himself as a person - in his attitude towards another person, himself, the group or society, to nature as a whole. " [18, p. 421].

As for non-violent actions, they can be classified as imaginary non-violent actions, actually nonviolent actions, acting as an action and as a reaction, and quasi-violent actions. Concerning non-violent communication, it should be said that violent or non-violent communication forms the basis of a person's daily life and determines the nature of his interaction with other people. Due to the importance of these components of the non-violence position, we will devote special sections of this section to them.

If you try to identify some specific parameters of the position of coercion and the position of nonviolence, the differences in their manifestations can be represented as follows (Table 2).

Table 2

◘Pressure position and nonviolence position parameters

Coercion position

Non-violence position

Irritability

The ability not to be irritated or to use the positive of your irritability

Offensive

Ability not to take offense or use positive resentment

Emotional instability

Emotional Stability

Insecurity in yourself

Self-confidence

Negative openness (acceptance of another with a negative orientation)

Positive openness (acceptance of another with a positive orientation)

Self-centeredness

Ability to social decentration

Presence of psychological defenses

Absence of defenses or their awareness

Intolerance to someone else's opinion, to other people

Tolerance

Limitation of subjective freedom of other people

Extending the boundaries of the subjective freedom of other people

Priority of disciplinary action on organizational

Priority of organizational impacts over disciplinary

Low level of ability to connect other people to their goals and tasks and connect to other people's tasks

A high level of ability to connect other people to their goals and tasks and connect to the tasks of other people

Increased state of tension and anxiety in other people

Decrease in other people's state of tension and anxiety

The predominance of reactive behaviors over active

The predominance of active behaviors over reactive

As you can see, the indicators by which one position differs from the other is quite a lot. They characterize, on the one hand, some of the person's emotional reactions to the situation, on the other, the characteristics of the nature of interaction and communication in this situation. The basis of the position of nonviolence is the ability of a person to maintain confidence and positive attitude to the partners in the interaction, the ability to empathy and the ability to accept something that does not correspond to the convictions of the individual. And also not to build tension, understand the motivation of the opposite side and act so that, on the one hand, to achieve the set goals, on the other hand, do not bring the matter to the conflict and coercive action.

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