Aim and objectives of aesthetic education
Under aesthetic education is understood the interaction of the pupil with the educator and the educational environment, which covers everything, without any exception, the part of mastering the world according to the laws of beauty. As the main goal of aesthetic education is traditionally considered the development of aesthetic culture of the individual. Aesthetic personality culture is an individual acquisition, expressed in its aesthetic tastes and preferences. The aesthetic culture of the individual manifests itself in relation to nature, to other people, to work, to teaching, to art. She finds expression in the ability to organize her life according to the laws of beauty.
The aesthetic culture of personality is closely connected with the aesthetic culture of society. Under the aesthetic culture of society is understood the totality of phenomena, public institutions, practices, works, behavior and attitude, which relate to the realization and fixation of the aesthetic experience of mankind of a certain cultural and historical period. The most complete aesthetic culture is embodied in the art of its time, but the space of aesthetic culture is much broader than art. Aesthetic culture is designed to cover all spheres of public life.
The higher the aesthetic culture of a person, the more accurately, more organically and more confidently a person is guided in life problems and solving any professional problems. The developed aesthetic sense helps to check the solutions found in various areas of life. A harmonious, intuitively acceptable solution to the problem is, most likely, true. Aircraft designers say, for example, that ugly aircraft do not fly. Engineers who accurately calculated the designs of future towers or bridges, as a rule, achieve that their structures are regarded as works of art.
However, not only the result, but the process itself also brings aesthetic pleasure to the aesthetically developed person. For example, solving the most complex mathematical or chess problems delivers a real aesthetic pleasure to mathematicians and chess players. They openly talk about the beauty of formulas, conclusions and results.
Philosophers constantly emphasize that the aesthetic is closely related to the ethical. The ability to see and understand the beautiful is one of the important criteria for the moral development of the individual. A highly moral, disinterested deed provides a person with joy, a genuine aesthetic pleasure.
One of the means and consequences of globalization is the emergence and widespread use of mass culture in the modern world. The modern mass culture derives its genealogy from a booth, some forms of folklore and similar phenomena. A powerful impetus for its development was received with the intensive dissemination of the means of mass communication. Mass culture refers to everything that is oriented towards a primitive, unassuming aesthetic taste and assumes the artistic underdevelopment of the recipient. Mass culture includes: the whole sphere of show business, TV games, television series, etc. It also includes a significant part: militants, thrillers, detectives, horror films, fiction, melodrama, etc. Of course, militants, thrillers and detectives, as well as other genres of art listed above, can be represented by highly artistic works, and then they can be attributed to high art.
The main difference between the products of mass culture and the products of elite aesthetic culture is that they are based on simplified, vulgarized, easily read aesthetic forms and primitive artistic patterns. Simple subjects, standard images, primitive melodies and verses, melodramatic and sentimental schemes, rude humor are the main features of the products of mass culture. All this is usually culled by carefully executed special effects: masterly modeled fights, shootings, sexual scenes, high-quality made fantastic creatures and monsters, etc.
Mass culture can skillfully exploit the most primitive instincts and trivial aesthetic experience of a person, consciously directing it not to enrichment and complication, but to unification and simplification. It does not set itself the task of stimulating and perfecting the spiritual world of man, but, on the contrary, strives for its primitivization, unification, by the liberation of the lowest instincts, unconscious desires and aspirations.Supporters of existential psychology argue that the lives of people who have a fine sense of beauty, emotionally richer, more saturated, fuller than the life of an aesthetically undeveloped person. The constant experience of harmonizing relations with the world and nature naturally leads to creative and harmonious relations with close and surrounding people, which ultimately contributes to the increase of the general moral and ethical culture of society.
The overall goal of the development of the aesthetic culture of the individual is traditionally concretized in the tasks of aesthetic education. The most important of them are:
- education of aesthetic interests and needs;
- education of aesthetic tastes, ideals, preferences;
- the formation of aesthetic experience and aesthetic personality consciousness
- the upbringing and development of abilities to build their relationships with the world according to the laws of beauty.
The solution of the problems of aesthetic education should lead to the development of the pupil's needs and ability to comprehend the beautiful, to see beauty in all its manifestations, to try to build its relations with the Universum on the principles of beauty and harmony. The aesthetic attitude determines the worldview, characterizes the spiritual world, the behavior of a person, manifests itself throughout the entire way of life. The search for an answer to the question of how to raise these important qualities in a person is the task of pedagogy. Pedagogical psychology, in the first place, is interested in other aspects of this process:
- the mechanisms and regularities of the process of aesthetic development of the personality in the educational environment;
- age and individual differences in the course of the process of aesthetic personality development
- the nature of the relationship between levels of cognitive and aesthetic personality development
- the mechanisms and patterns of transformation of the process of aesthetic personality development
- the relationship between the character of the aesthetic development of the individual and the content, forms, methods and means of aesthetic and artistic education.
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