The role of education in solving immigrant problems, International...

The role of education in solving immigrant problems

The school is responsible for the pedagogical search for solutions to immigration problems. This search is carried out within the framework of the state course, on the one hand, with regard to ethnic minorities, on the other - to the dominant ethno-cultural groups. In the first case, priorities and accents change significantly. First of all, pedagogical activity, connected with the complex of issues of socialization of immigrants, comes to the forefront.

The immense growth of immigration creates multinational societies with many new pedagogical and cultural problems. The polyethnic nature of migration origin gives rise to specific difficulties in the sphere of education and training. There is a need for special pedagogical efforts within the framework of the so-called migrant pedagogy. Immigrants disprove Danton's winged judgment that "the homeland can not be carried on the soles of boots," while continuing to be carriers of national culture and mentality. And such ethnic identity can not be ignored in education and training. Special education of immigrants is certainly necessary. It should also take into account the concern of multimillion immigrant groups by entering the culture of the host country and at the same time preserving the ethno-cultural identity.

The training and education of immigrants is not easy. Everywhere immigrants experience difficulties in cultural and educational adaptation. Many refugee children find themselves in a situation of cultural shock (culture chock ), caused by the massive impact of a different culture. Shock effect has a long character and must be taken into account in pedagogical work. During the first few weeks or months, immigrant students are usually prone to euphoria, being unable to objectively assess the situation. Then comes the most painful state of fear and confusion. And, finally, a stage of stability can be reached when migrants try to enter into a dialogue with the other students.

Immigration, leading to an increase in the multinationality of societies, initiates changes in education. Immigrants bring their own culture, which gives rise to new problems for the pedagogical support of migrants for the school. It is necessary to search for the optimal system of pedagogical prevention of ethnocultural conflicts addressed to immigrants, encourage readiness for effective self-realization in the polycivilization community.

International Experience

In international experience, several promising areas of pedagogical support and adaptation of migrant children to the realities of a multinational and multicultural society can be identified: the acquisition of experience in entering a system of diverse social, cultural and ethnic ties; subjective reproduction of such links; respect and observance of personal and universally recognized social norms.

Socialization of migrants in the spirit of multiculturalism presupposes the education of a person who is not indifferent and active in interethnic communication, alien xenophobia, aggressive nationalism, which is inclined to intercultural and interethnic interaction and cooperation.

Migrant pedagogy is carried out in several types of teaching and educational work:

• Sociocommunication support (studying the culture, ethical standards of the host country, fostering respect for them);

• Linguistic support (bilingual education in majority languages ​​and migrants);

• Academic support (compensatory training in the study of social sciences, history, natural sciences, ie those educational disciplines that use conceptual vocabulary primarily from a non-native language);

• cooperation with parents (participation of immigrant families in overcoming the difficulties of teaching their children, placing primary responsibility on parents for joining a dominant culture, fostering a positive attitude towards a multinational and multicultural environment).

Teaching methods for children and adolescents from immigrant communities largely involve additional pedagogical efforts. Compensatory training is a response to the growth of underachievement, the unsatisfactory preparation of immigrant students. The practice of such training provides for the cooperation of the school and the family, the involvement of specialists in psychology, an individual approach. The system of compensatory education includes additional classes, low grade occupancy, adaptation classes. Among the forms of compensatory education for immigrants, repeated education in one class is common. However, the repetition of students, including immigrant children, creates the illusion of compensatory learning. Psychological and pedagogical observations show that repeated training often not only does not improve the level of preparation, but it is also pedagogically harmful, as repeaters lose their self-confidence and become difficult children.

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