The role of the adult in the development of communication between children and their peers
Studies show that the need for communication with peers is built on the basis of previously formed needs - in communication with the adult, in impressions and active functioning. Since the need for impressions and actions with objects initially obscures the need for communication with peers and the kid takes the peer as an object for a long time, "open" his subjectivity child helps an adult. Relying on the substantive activity leading at an early age, he can organize such interaction between children, which opens the possibility for the emergence of a subjective attitude to another child and at the same time enriches the experience of communicating the new ones with each other.
This way of adult influence on the development of communication between children and peers was tested in experiments. They involved children of one and a half years old, who did not have a need to communicate with peers. With one group, a situation was organized where they could play with toys while being near each other. Thus, the possibility of spontaneous emergence of a joint game of children with objects was created.
In another group, an adult tried to organize a joint game of children with objects and establish personal contacts between them. He supported and strengthened all the initiative manifestations of the child towards a peer in the course of their free play side by side; Involved them in the objective activity, suggesting that they perform the same actions one by one (folding the cubes into a common bucket, putting them one on top of the other to build a turret together). At the same time, the adult tried to establish friendly relations between the children: he encouraged me to call each other by name, to praise, to draw attention to the merits and successes of my peer, etc. Such lessons were held for a month and a half.
As a result, after the expiration of this period, the children of the second group had a need for communication, expanded the content of interaction, established electoral relations with partners in joint games. Children not only willingly enter into emotional contact with each other, but also play together with toys. The kids from the first group, although the interest to each other increased, but communication did not arise.
Thus, it was established that the organization of adult subject interaction of children in the process of joint objective activity is an effective way of forming communication with peers.
Meaning of communicating with peers for the mental development of a child
Communicating children with peers at an early age, despite being at the stage of formation, contributes to mental development.
Polish psychologist A. Kempinski reflected the specifics of the communication of children with peers as follows. He wrote that the interaction of the child with an adult and a peer is at different levels. The plane of relations with an adult is oblique: at the bottom is a child, at the top is an authoritative, largely inaccessible adult, with whom the baby can not compare. With a peer he communicates in a horizontal plane. Before him is an equal being in which the child without words finds an intuitive understanding of his states, a readiness to share the valuable and for him the desire for self-expression. In communicating with their peers, the children enjoy the opportunity to express themselves in the fullness of their immediacy. This is a special value for the child to communicate with peers. Thus, A. Kempinski stressed the important psychotherapeutic role of joint games of children with peers.
Communication with other children plays an important role in the child's social development. In the course of emotional and practical games, children begin to feel and understand each other better. The experience of communicating with peers teaches them to live in a team, to get on with other people. Thanks to this experience, they acquire the ability to assert their rights, coordinate their actions with the actions of others.
Communication of young children is one of the sources of development of their cognitive activity. Contacts with peers give them additional impressions, stimulate vivid experiences, are a field for the manifestation of the initiative, provide an opportunity to discover and demonstrate their skills, all these qualities are important for the development of children's self-awareness. Watching the actions of a peer, imitating him, comparing himself with him, acting together, the child seems to "look" In an invisible mirror, which reflects his own skills and qualities. Therefore, communication with equal partners is one of the important means of forming an adequate representation of the child about oneself.
Communication of the child with peers develops at an early age and passes in its development several stages. In the second year of life, children show only interest and attention to each other, colored with positive emotions, contacts between them are episodic and short-lived. These contacts are prompted by the child's need for impressions and active functioning. At this stage, children are mostly treated with each other as an interesting subject, a toy, highlighting its object qualities in the partner.
At the end of the second year of life, the children have a desire to attract the peer's attention and demonstrate their skills to him.
In the third year, the sensitivity of children to a peer's relationship appears. By the end of the third year, the need to communicate with peers is fully formed. Contacts of children acquire the character of subject-oriented interaction.
Communication of children with each other at an early age is carried out in the form of emotional and practical interaction, built on mutual imitation. Its distinctive features are the absence of subject content, spontaneity and looseness.
An important role in the formation of communication between children and peers belongs to an adult. Organizing the subject interaction of children in the process of joint objective activity, he enriches the experience of spontaneously emerging emotional and practical communication of children with each other new content.
The main importance of communicating with peers is that it opens up opportunities for the child's self-expression, contributes to its social development and development of self-awareness.
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