The second year of life
Children of the second year of life show a pronounced interest in the speech of the surrounding people. They understand much of what adults say about objects they know and do, they like it when they talk with the conversation directly to them. And this does not distinguish the children of the second year of life from children of the end of the first year.
But in a very special way in the second year of life the child refers to a conversation, directly to him not related . It happens that the kid is busy with his own business, but if the grandmother says: "I will not find any glasses", - the grandson breaks off, finds glasses and brings them, although no one asked for it. Thus, the child not only connects the word to a specific object, but also responds to it with an action whose goal is determined independently. At this age, the child understands the meaning of the speech of an adult addressed to him, knows how to carry out his simple requests and instructions: "Bring the newspaper", "Raise the toy" and so on
In addition to the meaning of speech for children of the second year of life, it is often interesting to combine a combination of sounds, their rhythm, tempo and intonation, with which words, phrases are pronounced. This has long been noticed by adults, which led to the creation of a peculiar music of speech in such jokes and sayings as the "forty-crows", "goat horned" and others
Thus, the word acquires an independent meaning for the child of the second year of life, becomes a special subject , which he captures in its semantic content and sounding .
In the second year of life, the intensive development of the child's own speech begins, which is usually called active.
In the development of active speech, there are two periods . First - from the end of the first year of life to one and a half years; second - from the second half of the second year of life to 2 years. Each of them has its own peculiarities, qualitative differences.
In the first half of the second year, the pace of speech development is slow, the reserve of active words increases slightly; in the second - the stock of active words increases rapidly and the child begins to use them quite widely. At the same time, the character of the child's words changes.
The first period in the development of children's speech in the second year of life is characterized by an intensive development of understanding the speech of others and the emergence of the first words. The first words of the child have a number of specific features that distinguish them so much from the speech of adults that they are called autonomous children's speech .
The first feature of it is the special sound composition of the word. The child can only pronounce one syllable of the word, e.g., na instead of dropped or to pronounce the word completely, but to distort its sound, for example, tisya instead of clock & quot ;, oon instead of the "crow". Among the first words there are many onomatopoeias, for example, "av-av" (dog), mu (cow), tu-tu (machine), etc.
The second feature of the autonomous children's speech is the peculiar meaning of children's words. The child's designation of items is unstable. He calls different things the same word. So, kis-kis can refer to a cat and to a fur hat. And vice versa - he gives different names to the same subject. For example, a toy duck once can be called just like a toy dog, the other as a kettle only on the grounds that all these items are yellow. This indicates that the first generalizations of the child are not based on the essential features of objects, but on random, situational coincidences of their individual qualities.
At this age, the child's words can have the meaning of the whole sentence , utterances. And this meaning can vary depending on the situation. Usually such words are accompanied by facial expressions and gestures. Thus, the word mom in a situation in which a child, while uttering this word, reaches out to the ball, means: "Give me a ball," and in a situation where he hits his mother after hitting, there is a complaint behind this word: "It hurts, pity me" ;
The situation of children's speech, its special sound composition often make it difficult for the child to communicate with others, as his words are understandable only to those adults who constantly communicate with the child.
The peculiarity of speech development at a given age stage is also in the fact that by putting words of their own meaning in spoken words, often incomprehensible to others, children at the same time understand the speech of adults and rarely make mistakes in performing their instructions.>
By a year and a half, babies willingly and easily repeat the words pronounced by adults for adults. When adults sing a song or say little rhymes, children "conspire", repeat their endings if they are not difficult in sound composition.
So, the main content of the first stage of speech development is the child's mastery of the naming of objects, persons, situations. Speech primarily serves to identify objects based on the reproduction of sound samples of adults (words).
The second period in speech development usually occurs after one and a half years and is characterized by an increase in the rate of development, highlighting self speech. Accumulated for the first half of the year, the vocabulary becomes an active dictionary of the baby. It increases rapidly; words that denote objects become more stable and unambiguous. In addition to nouns, verbs and some grammatical forms appear in the speech: the past tense, the third person. By the end of the second year, the child forms small sentences of two or three words.
Their construction at first is peculiar. So, the subject is sometimes placed after the predicate ("escaped uncle"); additions are put on the first place ( moko dai, mama ); the negation is at the end of the statement ("Vita pack is not").
By the end of the second year of the child's life speech becomes the main means of communication. Mutual relations with an adult are put on a verbal form. The child addresses to associates on different occasions: requests, demands, points, names, and subsequently informs.
The third year of life
Children of the third year are distinguished by high speech activity. They talk a lot, accompanying almost all of their actions, sometimes without addressing anyone. They repeat everything they hear, reproduce complex speech structures and unfamiliar words, often without even understanding their meaning; play In words, repeating one word with different intonations, they rhyme words with pleasure ("Nutka-Carpathian", "Svetka-karbetka"). Speech becomes a special subject of children's activity, in which they open up new faces.
The child of the third year of life not only likes to listen to the speech of an adult, poems, fairy tales, he can memorize and reproduce a poem; by the end of the third year - retell the story heard from an adult.
At this age, all aspects of the child's speech are rapidly developing. The speech is included in almost all aspects of his life.
More diverse are the reasons for his appeal to an adult. The kid wants to talk about what he did; seeking an explanation for the incomprehensible; asks to show how to do something; can unfold to tell about what he has seen, come up with his own story, express his words in words, share experiences. He asks questions about everything he sees around him. The kid is still interested in the external properties of things, but this interest is a stepping stone to the next age stage - the preschool age, the "whytook" age. It is characteristic that the child can ask the same question about the subject and its name known to him. This fact indicates that he is looking for the adult not only information about the surrounding , but also encourages him to communicate. He likes the attention of an adult and his own ability to ask questions.
By the age of three, the child has a large vocabulary, uses almost all parts of speech, there is a case and time in it. In the third year he takes possession of prepositions and dialects (above, below, on, next to), some unions (as, because, and, and, when, only, etc.).
The structure of speech becomes more complicated. The child begins to use verbose sentences, interrogative and exclamatory forms, and over time and complex subordinate clauses. His speech is rapidly approaching the speech of an adult, opening up more and more opportunities for the child's versatile communication with others, including peers.
However, even during this period, grammatically incorrect phrases are quite common in children ("This is Milochkin's grandmother", "I run about"). They do not always cope with grammatical forms, replace some words with others, create their own words. All this makes their speech peculiar, attractive, expressive.
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