Justification of ways of organizing and preparing classes
When designing the ways of organizing and preparing a lesson, first, determine the time of its holding. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the workload of children in educational work and affairs according to the general school plan, because overload causes students to avoid various kinds of occupations, formal attitude towards them, emotional satiety.
Secondly, you need to clearly develop a common scenario of employment. It is necessary to determine the specific types of preparatory work, to allocate its plots, to appoint performers and the terms of verification.
Any case (preparation of gathering, meeting, meetings, evenings, etc.) requires students to have a wide variety of activities and manifestations of many abilities: organizational, musical, artistic, as well as fiction, initiative, independence, etc. And it is very important to determine in advance what qualities of a person this or that matter will require, in order to correctly distribute assignments based on educational objectives. At the same time, one should also take into account the formation of what personality traits the individual classes will be facilitated by the ongoing occupation (for example, being conceited to show that it is possible to do without it, in shy and uncertain support for self-confidence, for someone, rejected and unpopular, before peers themselves and help to win a proper place in the class, etc.).
Psychological justification for the organization and preparation of the lesson requires a clear definition of the role of the educator. Often teachers, especially the young, take on most of the work, including what the students should do (decorate the room, write congratulations, issue wall newspapers, etc.). In primary school, parents do it with pleasure.Taking into account the age of schoolchildren and the degree of development of their independence, the educator should determine his role, which can be, first, in identifying the general content of the class (pick up literature, check student performances, entertainments, etc.); second, to help and control the course of his preparation (to conduct rehearsals, to give advice on the external design of the class, suits, etc.); thirdly, in the direct solution of organizational issues (to provide accommodation, musical accompaniment, money, assistance to chiefs, etc.). A special feature of primary school educational activities, especially large ones, such as an excursion, a New Year holiday, etc., is the indispensable active participation of parents as full participants in the educational process. Therefore, when designing, conducting and then analyzing educational work, it is important to answer the following questions:
• what kinds of work can be delegated to parents, and which children should be instructed to do on their own;
• what effect in the context of educational work can ensure the participation of parents in the preparation/conduct of the lesson: negative (excessive guardianship, juxtaposition of their children, nervousness, lack of organization, etc.) or positive (development of respect and cooperation of children and parents, help children in self-realization, etc.);
• How to enhance positive effects and reduce the negative impact of negative ones?
Analysis of the course and results of the session
The psychological and pedagogical analysis of the course of the lesson is not so much an analysis of the immediate preparation and conduct of the class as in the comprehension of its pedagogical value, in identifying the mistakes made in planning and in the immediate implementation of the plan.
Here is a common example scheme for the psychological and pedagogical substantiation of an educational lesson and the analysis of its conduct.
1. Substantiation of the content, form and purpose of the educational activity.
1.1. The theme and purpose of the educational lesson. Its relevance and value in connection with the general goals of the upbringing of Soviet schoolchildren.
1.2. Its form (class hour, matinee, debate, conversation, reading conference, meeting with outstanding people, picnic in nature, etc.). Correspondence of the topic and content form of employment.
1.3. Specific educational tasks that can be solved as a result of this lesson, developed qualities, skills, attitudes; separate areas of educational work. Specific ACD (personal, cognitive, regulatory, communicative), which are updated on the lesson.
1.4. Correspondence to the age characteristics of schoolchildren (their interests, cognitive abilities, activity and level of independence).
1.5. The motivation for choosing a lesson for a given children's collective (based on the characteristics of the relationship between children, the level of pupils' education, their specific interests, attitudes to particular phenomena, behavioral characteristics).
1.6. The initiators of the lesson: the teacher, parents, children, the occupation is all-school.
2. Psychological and pedagogical substantiation of the ways of organizing and preparing the lesson.
2.1. For what period of time is this lesson planned and why (how is it related to the learning process, the students' load, the school plan, etc.).
2.2. An approximate or detailed lesson scenario.
2.3. The main types of preparatory work, their sequence, terms, responsible (schedule).
2.4. Skills and qualities necessary in the preparation and conduct of the lesson, ability (musical, organizational abilities, erudition, ability to draw, will, endurance, self-control, initiative, etc.).
2.5. Distribution of specific assignments between members of the children's group. Their justification by individual psychological characteristics; (for one child - the education of responsibility, for the other - to give the opportunity to assert themselves in the eyes of peers, to show their abilities and overcome shyness and uncertainty, for the third - to learn not only to command, to obey and so on. etc.).
2.6. The role of the educator in the preparation of the lesson: what he should do himself, what to help the students, and what to entrust to them themselves. Forms of his participation and control: listening to information, presence at rehearsals, consultations, etc. The role of parents and the forms of their participation.
3. Psychological and pedagogical analysis of the course of employment.
3.1. How organized and timely was the beginning of the work?
3.2. Readiness and design of the room and the appearance of the students: did the objectives of this lesson contribute to the development?
3.3. To what extent did schoolchildren participating in the work have coped with their roles (prepared, confident, calm, inspired or confused, sluggish, etc.)?
3.4. Are all students passionate about the course of the lesson? What was the emotional reaction of the children and at what times?
3.5. What kind of moral, intellectual and aesthetic feelings of pupils was facilitated by the course of work?
3.6. What was the discipline of schoolchildren? Features of mass behavior during the session (imitation, inspiration, change of collective mood, spirit of competition, etc.)?
3.7. What strengthened the efforts of children (the approval of teachers, the positive emotions of their peers: enthusiastic expression of people, words of approval, applause, praise in the wall newspaper, etc.), did the students receive internal satisfaction from participating in the preparation and conduct of the lesson, is the work done valuable for them?
4. Overall grade of the lesson.
4.1. How far is the goal of the lesson achieved? What is its educational and cognitive value? What values
were updated? What, when preparing and conducting, reduced or strengthened the educational effect in comparison with the expected result?
4.2. How did the direct organizers and participants in the lesson (pupils, parents) prove themselves? How did you manage the tasks to prepare and conduct it? What qualities of a person have shown? What kind of DAMs were formed? Did the expectations of the educator have justified in this respect?
4.3. What is the effect of the occupation on individual students and the group as a whole? By what indicators can you judge this? Did it affect behavior, discipline, children's attitude toward learning, interpersonal relationships in a group, and so on? (give an analysis of several examples)?
4.4. How did the exercise on the formation of the collective, the individual students, their relationships affected? What can be the consequences of it for the development of the team?
4.5. What adjustments did you make to prepare and conduct the lesson than the planned plan? Than it was caused by objective or subjective reasons (unexpectedly they occupied the room where they planned to conduct the occupation, someone fell ill or did not show activity, was frightened of difficulties, did not manage the task, etc.)? What was not taken into account in the justification of the occupation at one hundred planning?
4.6. Have the principles of upbringing and its laws been fully taken into account in the preparation and conduct of the lesson? What are the wishes for the future regarding the content and forms of organizing such educational activities?
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