Theories, concepts and models of integrated education...

Theories, concepts and models of integrated education

There are many theories, concepts and models that integrate traditional and modern ideas and approaches within the framework of the humanistic paradigm. On the one hand, it is a product of natural integration, the aspirations of practitioners to the most effective approaches, which often act as aggregate, unifying, and simultaneously solving many tasks. On the other hand, at a certain stage, their scientific awareness and justification takes place, which speeds up the process of design and wide use.

Let us dwell on a number of examples of such integrated designs - theories, concepts, models, embodied in author schools. During the period of perestroika, education has become more culturally saturated, diversified (many versions of programs, types of educational institutions), person-oriented, instrumentally saturated. In the last decade of the last century, the creative initiative of teachers and pedagogical collectives scored the key. The names of the innovator educators became known throughout the country, and their experience became the property of the pedagogical community. There were author's schools.

The term author's school began to be used from the late 80's. the last century, although in fact, bright authorial schools have existed for a long time (schools I. Pestalozzi, S. Frenet, L. Tolstoy, R. Steiner, J. Korczak, E. Kostyashkin, V. Sukhomlinsky, A. Zakharenko, etc.). Author's school is an educational institution built on the basis of original and effective (author's) ideas and technologies systematically embodied in the author's design. The creator and construct of such schools is usually the teacher-organizer, sometimes a group of scientists and like-minded teachers.

Theory and methodology of training in cooperation - the reflection in the educational sphere of the general pedagogical idea and practice of pedagogy of cooperation, equal partnership, mutual understanding, common work and co-creation of teachers and students. Learning in collaboration arose in the experience of teachers-innovators in the 60-80-ies. XX century. (Sh. A. Amonashvili, IP Ivanov, EN Il'in, VF Shatalov, SN Lysenkova, VA Karakovskii, and others). Official registration was received in the Manifesto of Educators-Innovators, published in the "Teacher's Newspaper" (1986). Pedagogy of cooperation received a huge public response, stimulated mass pedagogical creativity, marked a turn to the personality of the child, to the classical traditions of humane pedagogy, approved the moral parity of the student and teacher as subjects of joint work and search.

The idea of ​​pedagogy of cooperation was found in the theory and pedagogical experience of Sh. A. Amonashvili in a vivid and consistent embodiment. In his humane-personal system , the School of Life emerged, in which the outer aims of education proclaim the Spirituality and Nobility of the maturing disciple as a Person, Personality and Citizen. The school is called upon to revive the highest spiritual and moral values ​​(the creation of good deeds, clarity, responsibility for actions, compassion, empathy, conscience, etc.). The school of life proclaims universal values, but leads the child to them through comprehension of the values ​​of its people, its nation, its homeland. The pupils of this school are armed with global skills and abilities through a peculiarly constructed objective activity that excites such "psychic forces" as the ability to cognitive reading, writing and speech activity, linguistic flair, mathematical imagination, the ability to plan activities, comprehend the beautiful, speech and cognitive activity in a foreign language (languages), etc. Instead of the main goal of mastering knowledge, the leading goal is the task of cultivating the forces, opportunities for cognition with omoschyu knowledge, faith and their own activities. Very original employees of this goal are elementary school subjects. Here are some of them:

- lessons of cognitive reading;

- Lessons in writing and speech activity

- native language lessons;

- communication lessons;

- lessons in chess;

- Lessons about the world of sciences.

The school does not prepare for life, it includes junior high school students in life, they live it, experiencing and experiencing everything that it teaches.

The Sociocultural Concept of Adaptive Learning was developed and implemented at the Moscow Education Center No. 109 and has numerous followers in the Schools for All model. Its author is the pedagogue and scientist EA Yamburg. The theory and practice of adaptive learning implements the goal of providing the conditions for the optimal development of each student on the basis of his natural data and the level of differentiated education available to him.

In the structure of the Center, educational trajectories of three levels are realized:

- Advanced (Lyceum-gymnasium) level;

- the base standard;

- compensatory learning.

At all levels, culturally-conditioned traditions of developmental learning, preservation and restoration of health, the formation of a positive "I-concept" are ensured, adaptation to learning conditions is provided, a dialogue of cultures, the practice of social partnership is used. The YA Yamburg school represents a model of a very popular adaptive school in the city, and especially (in specific variants) in the village.

The concept and practice of personal self-determination of students, designed and implemented by AN Tubelsky in the experience of the school № 734 in Moscow - the school of personal self-determination, proceeds from the tasks of ensuring the self-determination of the child on the basis of freedom " forces and motivations to the formation of a personal attitude to what is happening, the definition of a personal meaning, the development of universal ways of thinking activity (understanding, reflection, sense formation, etc.). The educational process, with the exception of a few educational subjects, is conducted in the senior school according to individual curricula, is of a variant character (different hypotheses are assumed, the methods of their verification are chosen), the immersion method is used, and the classroom- workshops and studios.

We give a number of models that have had a noticeable impact on practice, although they have not found such a vivid reflection in author schools.

A model of critically-oriented learning. Many parameters of learning conditions in traditional educational process variants act as fixed elements (the same for all school hours, the way information is presented, the grading scale, etc.). But the indicators of learning outcomes are not rigidly fixed and thus it is assumed that they may not be the same for different students. American psychologists J. Carroll and B. Bloom proposed to make it fixed in advance the planned results of training. Then variables that can be varied are time, methods, techniques, levels of learning, but the results, the criterial indicators of their achievement, must be set and achieved.

The initial installation of such a model was the statement that all students are able to achieve results within the prescribed mandatory standard, i.e. fully comprehend the mandatory minimum, which, naturally, does not limit the achievement of them and higher levels. Hence the definition of this model as technologies of complete assimilation. The humane orientation of this model is that, using an individual approach, selecting and varying tasks, ways of presenting them, providing assistance, the teacher achieves a level of training that opens the prospect of further full-fledged, but already differentiated education and entry into culture for each student.

Full digestion technology includes the following elements:

1. Definition of goals, levels, specific results required by the programs. For United States education, these are the levels:

- recognizing and choosing the right answer;

- reproductive reproduction and solving typical problems;

- a creative approach related to transformational activity.

2. Separation of the study material into separate fragments (units) with the determination of the duration of the study and the criteria (indicators) that determine the success of the study.

3. Preparing test tasks to determine learning outcomes.

The theory and technology of project teaching was practiced in pragmatic pedagogy by D. Dewey - learning through doing (USA, early 20th century) and in project training of the 20s. the last century we have (the method of projects). Has found application in the subsequent period in connection with the idea of ​​competence training.

It is designed to develop advanced vision, ability to compare existing and proper, to develop predictive and projective abilities in the process of working on imaginary and real situations as objects of projecting the future (career, educational institution, region), economy and social sphere of the country. The project organization of training develops planning skills, communicative and research skills, stimulates the search and acquisition of knowledge from various sources.

Concentrated learning. This idea reflects the tendencies of the integrated approach to structuring the educational material and saving time in the process of studying it. In theory and practice, various approaches are used to implement this idea: modular training, immersion, cyclic training, intensive training, consolidation of didactic units, etc.

Concentrated learning is a method of learning that uses the student's energy and work time to study one or more disciplines during a school day or a week. In such a case, conditions are created for the elimination of multifacetedness (the school day, the week, the month), the continuity and integrity of the process of cognition, integration and completeness of the cycle of movement from theory to practice.

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