VV Davydov's Theory of Developmental Training
The educational activity of schoolchildren, according to VV Davydov, should be built in accordance with the method of ascent from the abstract to the concrete. As the main shortcoming of traditional elementary education, V. Davydov notes the orientation of his content and methods on the formation of the fundamentals of empirical consciousness and thinking in schoolchildren. Emphasizing the importance of the development of empirical thinking, he argues that this is not the most effective way of mental development of children.
The traditional system of education, based on an empirical approach to the formation of concepts and knowledge, does not allow to fully solve the problems of development. V. V. Davydov says that the visual image helps to familiarize the child with the essential properties of the object. According to V. Davydov, empirical thinking reflects only external relations, it makes it difficult to penetrate the essence of phenomena.
Developmental learning must be based on theoretical thinking, and its formation is carried out using signs, symbols, models. "Theoretical thinking is knowledge with a minimum of visual-shaped supports, with a maximum of verbal constructions."
Considering the educational activity, V. Davydov formulates a number of logical and psychological provisions that he proposes to use in determining the content of education:
1. The learning of knowledge, which is of a general and abstract nature, precedes the acquaintance of students with more private and specific knowledge; the latter are deduced by the students from the general and abstract as from their own unified foundation.
2. The knowledge constituting the given subject or its main sections is assimilated by the students in the process of analyzing the conditions of their origin, due to which they become necessary.
3. When identifying the subject sources of certain knowledge, students should be able, first of all, to discover genetically the original, essential, universal relation defining the content and structure of the object of knowledge data in the teaching material.
4. This ratio pupils reproduce in special subject, graphic or alphabetic models, allowing to study its properties in pure form.
5. Students should be able to specify genetically the original, universal relation of the studied object in the system of particular knowledge about it, held together with that in a unity that provides mental transitions from the general to the particular and vice versa.
6. Students should be able to move from doing mental activities to performing them on the outer plane and back.Developing the idea of DB Elkonin that the leading role in the development of theoretical thinking is assigned to the content of education, the derivatives of which are forms of organization and methods of teaching, Davydov puts forward the following principles of developmental learning:
1. The content of the educational activities of primary school students are scientific concepts that create a general principle for solving problems.
2. The assimilation of scientific concepts has such dynamics: an analysis of the conditions for their formation, an explanation of the general principle, its application to particular particular cases.
3. Theoretical knowledge forms the basis of thinking and affects the practical implementation of activities.
4. Schoolchildren learn the scientific concepts in the process of educational activity. Their thoughtful actions are analogous to the historically established methods of human activity.
As in the previous case, all the principles presented were implemented by V. Davydov's followers in the curricula and teaching methods of all the subjects taught in the primary school. Studies aimed at comparing the effectiveness of this model of learning with the traditional approach have shown a number of its advantages that led to significant changes in the teaching and overall development of younger schoolchildren.
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