THEORY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Theory of Education and Training; the essence and driving forces of learning, the content of training; modern concepts of primary and secondary education, their didactic and substantive content; essence and driving forces of learning, the motives of learning at different age stages; management of educational and cognitive activities of schoolchildren; principles, methods and organizational forms of training; lesson in school: types of lessons, their structure, requirements for conducting and analyzing; diagnostics and evaluation of school achievements.
• the essence and content of training;
• modern concepts of primary and secondary education, their didactic and substantive content;
• the motives of learning at different age stages;
• principles, methods, forms of training organization;
• types of lessons, their structure, requirements for conducting and analyzing;
• Features of the content and organization of the pedagogical process in conditions of different types and types of OS at different levels of education;
be able to
• Define the goals and objectives of education, plan, conduct, analyze lessons;
• exercise pedagogical control, evaluate the process and learning outcomes;
• the skills of organizing the pedagogical process in conditions of different types and types of OS at different levels of education.
The subject and tasks of learning theory
Theory of Education and Training
In the modern world there are significant changes and transformations that affect all areas of human life. Before humanity, the main task is to determine the choice of the direction of its further development in the situation of incessant catastrophes, both natural and technogenic. And education stands out today as a key sphere of human activity, through which the choice of the path of development of all mankind as a whole and of each individual can be determined.Today, most developed countries come to the understanding that the most necessary and profitable investments are investments in people and their improvement, therefore, the civilized development of the society is possible only if the status and prestige of education are upgraded. It is thanks to education and purposeful training that the upbringing of the human person, the formation and development of its spiritual orientations takes place. The organization of the process of personality formation in the process of its education and upbringing is addressed by the general theory of learning, which is a relatively independent field of pedagogy.
Before we turn to the consideration of the theories of education and training, we return once more to determining the meaning of the concepts " education and training. In modern pedagogy, education is understood as the process of mastering the fundamental worldview, scientific, development of skills and abilities, as well as the development of intelligence. All this in total is indicative of a certain level of theoretical and practical training of the student.
In the US Law "On Education education is given a generalizing polyfunctional meaning and it seems to be a purposeful process of mastering a person or a group of people by a scientific understanding of the surrounding world that corresponds to the current level of society's development, scientific and technological progress. An educated person objectively understands and evaluates the events taking place in the world and in people's lives, realizes himself and his place in society. It is distinguished by the possession of spiritual values, the basics of a culture of attitudes and behavior, conducive to creativity, creation and self-improvement. The result of education is education, professional competence, the mentality of a person as an important property of his personality, irreducible to the availability of his diplomas. Education is naturally associated with education, training and human development.
The term " Training coincides in its meaning with the term " didactics ", which was introduced into the scientific revolution by the well-known German medieval scholar Ratke (Ratikhy) (1571 - 1635) and by which he designated a practical annex art of learning. This term has its long-standing origins in the ancient Greek language, in which the word " didaktikos" meant "teaching-related," and the word didasko - student & quot ;. Finally the term "didactics" as equivalent to the term training was entrenched in the field of scientific pedagogical knowledge after the appearance of the famous work of J. A. Komensky "Great Didactics", in which the principles, methods, contents and laws of learning were first systematized. Since that time didactics as a science of learning was called upon to give the practical teacher answers to key questions of educational practice: how to teach? whom and when to start learning? what and where to teach? and others.
Finalize the notion of training in the independent equal part of general pedagogical knowledge occurred only in the second half of the XX century, which is associated with the appearance of fundamentally different forms of storage and retrieval of information unknown until then, and, therefore, the emergence of new teaching tools, forms of training, and fundamentally different content of education . Therefore, in the modern pedagogical theory, the concepts training and didactics are used as equivalent and designate a purposeful, specially organized, systematic process of interaction between students and learners, during which the knowledge, skills and abilities that are provided for in the curriculum take place. In the course of this process, the teachers guide the educational and cognitive activity of the students and activate it, instill the skills of independent search for knowledge using modern means of storing and transmitting information, create conditions for the development of thinking, memory, imagination and speech, and help to learn and assimilate the experience of older generations. The result of training is the training of an individual or a group of people.
It's important to note that learning in general, like education does not exist at all. Training is always specific, occurs on a specific material and therefore takes into account the specifics of the organization of activities to study this particular material. To the concept of learning we address, when we characterize the specificity of the learning process and the scope of future professional activity. Therefore, training is always associated with the specific content of the activity and the methods of its organization. At the same time, didactics as a general theory of learning studies the general laws of learning, education and the development of the personality in the educational process, therefore it is closely related to specific subject methods of studying various disciplines and subjects , on the one hand, and will give the starting positions to their understanding and integration in a unified educational process, on the other.
Basic concepts of pedagogy education & quot ;, education and Training are an interrelated complex triunity that reveals the sequence of human development in the process of education, education, and learning (Figure 3.1) . Therefore, the development of the personality is an integral result of the pedagogical process, which implements educational, educational and training components.
From the one shown in Fig. 3.1 The scheme clearly shows that the learning process underlies all subsequent phenomena, however, being the core of the entire structure of personality development, it is the least aware and first perceived in its most common and obvious manifestations - upbringing and education. The above diagram convincingly shows that the process of considering the category "training" It is impossible in isolation from the categories education and "education", as it reveals the most general laws and principles of their organization and implementation in modern educational practice.
Fig. 3.1. The scheme of the triple hierarchical integrity of the basic concepts of pedagogy
In the 1960s. the Soviet poet L. Martynov wrote a remarkable quatrain, which very accurately denotes the area of value-orientation activity, the formation of which is occupied by the education system:
You do not consider yourself worthwhile Only here, in the existent, present.
You also read yourself walking along the border of the past with the future.In these four lines, the semantic richness and inseparable dialectical interrelationship of the three basic concepts of pedagogy: education, education and Learning. Let's try to present this process in three consecutive unfolding steps of a person's social formation, expressed in three main categories of pedagogy.
Step One - upbringing. In order to start read yourself worthwhile every person needs to get initial education, as a result of which he somehow will be able to form an initial idea of himself: to see his place of being, evaluate it and begin to act in it.
Second step - education. In order to be able to see, understand and appreciate yourself and the environment as being and present, in which his life flows, a person must be able to isolate the image of the past from this present, to understand himself and society as a continuous process education, in which the present is constantly transformed into the past, and the past, with the same constancy, determines the nature of the processes of education in the present. And now, once once only learned to move around in the surrounding space, a person begins to defend his right to his own way of life in the process of obtaining a personally significant education.
And then only in this third stage, a person acquires an amazing independent ability - the ability to learn, through which he transforms his intuitive sensations into mastered tools education - the ability to clearly see and distinguish the border of the past with the future, and most importantly, an irresistible craving, the need to overcome this boundary, to look beyond its horizon. It is then that a person becomes a real student and begins to learn to read himself walking along the border of the past with the coming in order to learn to distinguish the boundaries of the future and not be afraid to look for them.
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