United States-language schools in the post-Soviet space
In the post-Soviet space, United States-language schools are widespread abroad. Schoolchildren of these educational institutions often engage in United States textbooks and programs and simultaneously master standard national curricula.
The activities of United States-language schools are an important way to protect United States culture. These schools are often in a difficult situation. This is especially noticeable in Turkmenistan and the Baltics.
In the Baltics, in order to ensure the cultural and educational interests of the United States-speaking population, the school administration offers educational programs in the spirit of cross-cultural education. The chairman of the board of the Latvian Association for Support of Schools with the United States Language of Education (LAShOR) I. Pimenov describes this program in this way: "The first is the domination of the native language. The second is teaching the Latvian language with the help of modern linguistic techniques. The third - a block of objects of the floor called Lettonika. In this block the Latvian literature, ethnography, history of Latvia, taught in Latvian. The fourth is Rossica, a block of subjects that provides knowledge of United States literature, United States history, and geography. "
Teachers of United States-speaking schools in the Baltics are not inclined to confrontation, conscious of the need to integrate with the culture and language of the majority. This position is shared by the leaders of other educational institutions for national minorities - Jewish, Gypsy, Polish schools.
Aboriginal Ethnic Schools and Institutions in the United States
When analyzing the activities of American ethnic schools, one must take into account that many students from the indigenous ethnic minorities of the United States continue to be segregated. Schools for color remain worse than for whites. Black Americans face additional difficulties at the end of the general education school and the acquisition of higher education. The relations of white schoolchildren and students from minorities are far from idyllic. Let us cite in this connection an excerpt from a story that turned out to be in the mid-1990s. in New York our compatriot. I found out that our district school is in Harlem. I went there. I turned to the teacher who was leaving, a pretty black woman. She asked the question: "Are your children also white?". "Yes," I said. "Do not lead your girl here. Look for another school, "was the answer."
American educational institutions for ethnic minorities often do not become foci of a dialogue of cultures and become isolated on the primary study of their own small culture. Thus, the founders of African American schools, relying on the ideas of the organization's leader, "African-American Images" J. Koonjuf, declare as the pedagogical priorities the education of racial self-esteem, the acquisition of knowledge about African American ethnoculture. It is clear that such statements - the answer to racial discrimination, the desire to establish itself in ethnic identity. However, attempts to disassociate themselves from American culture, correlating with the culture of Africa, look unconvincing. After all, African Americans created a culture that is part of the spiritual values of the American people and is different from the culture of any African people. So, in fact, African-American schools often speak of monocultural education and the rejection of a cultural dialogue with both the white community and other small ethnic groups.
Schools for Indians and Eskimos emerged as an echo of the historical destinies of Native Americans. Until the 20th century. Aboriginal people were subjected to severe cultural and educational discrimination, which aggravated their negative attitude towards European civilization and education. Here is a typical saying of the Apache tribe: "Teachers carry evil in themselves, and everything connected with it, especially books, is also evil. Children must be sent to school because of the law on compulsory education. So do not take the school seriously. All printed materials are a white man's business. "
Supporter of Aboriginal schools, American-Indian teacher M. Fedullo believes that it is necessary to teach young Indians to live in a different social environment without losing touch with their own culture. For this, he recommends the practice of school essays in English, dedicated to Indian culture. It is also proposed to intelligibly explain differences in the worldview of Indians and Euro-Americans, for example, it is advised to suggest that a white man's gaze is not always a sign of hostility and can mean simple curiosity or benevolent interest.
The creation of schools for Aboriginal people in Alaska has become noticeable. The state operates the Coalition for Education on the basis of the traditional knowledge systems of the peoples of Alaska. " The coalition consists of representatives of more than 20 institutions, professional organizations that show interest in the problems of teaching mathematics and science in rural schools in Alaska. The coalition seeks to streamline existing training materials and information resources, bring them in line with school standards and curricula aimed at studying the ethno-cultural values of the aborigines of the North.
Federation of Indigenous Peoples of Alaska, University of Alaska, Department of Education of the State, Councils of Tribal Elders, Consortium "Indigenous Education/Rural Education" are involved in the implementation of the Aboriginal education project "Alaska Rural System Initiative". The aim of the project is to systematize the knowledge of the indigenous peoples of Alaska and develop pedagogical technologies and curricula that allow the introduction of this knowledge and ways of studying them in plans and programs of rural educational institutions of indigenous Alaska peoples. The idea of the interconnection and mutual necessity of the modern culture and traditional culture of the aborigines is the basis of the SCIA. A key value in the project is given to the revival of traditional Aboriginal knowledge and approaches in order to use them as a basis for teaching Aboriginal students in rural educational institutions.
The draft SSIA provides for the creation of a bank of educational documentation for the use of traditional knowledge and Aboriginal culture in educational programs. It is about teaching materials but history, culture, way of life, language, religion, toponymy, crafts of aborigines, which should be made out on various information carriers. Within the framework of the project, several directions of the reform of education and training of Aboriginal people were developed: 1) preparation of culturally oriented curricula and educational standards; 2) development of didactic materials on mathematics and subjects of the natural science cycle, taking into account the culture and traditions of Aboriginal people; 3) identification of traditional teaching methods; 4) the creation of a cultural atlas by students; 5) the establishment of student associations "Traditional scientific knowledge of the peoples of Alaska and the industrial society"; 6) conducting student scientific camps and fairs of scientific ideas; 7) the organization of camps of elders and cultural camps; 8) the creation of the Academy of Elders; 9) involvement of parents in the educational process.
When creating culturally oriented curricula and programs, the so-called spiral and integrative approach is proclaimed. The educational process is suggested untwist around the topics, including: family, language/communication, cultural manifestations, tribe/community, health/healthy lifestyle, place of residence, school of survival, etc. The development of curricula on these topics should develop the ethno-cultural self-awareness of students, promote their ethnic identification . It is assumed that students are more deeply aware of the value of their culture, imbued with a sense of responsibility for its preservation and development.
Prepared Alaska State Standards for Culturally Focused Schools provide detailed guidance on how to include information on local culture and the environment in the formal educational process so that students can achieve cultural competence as a result of the training. Standards are developed in addition to the general teaching standards of Alaska. Teaching materials on mathematics and natural science subjects were also offered, taking into account the specific features of life and life of a particular Aboriginal settlement. The materials are intended to show the methods of teaching mathematics and natural science disciplines, relying on the life and cultural experience of Aboriginal people and simultaneously respecting the standard curriculum. In this regard, topics such as weather, food storage, moon/tides, trees, berries, system of measures, etc. are named.
In determining the specifics of Aboriginal schoolchildren's training, an attempt was made to study the tradition of transferring social experience by the peoples of the North, to reveal the techniques of such a broadcast with the aim of using them in the educational process. Such methods included teaching with the use of personal experience, guided practical activity, careful observation, intuitive way of cognition, cooperative/group training, etc. To effective methods of teaching Aboriginal people in Alaska, work on the compilation of so-called cultural atlases can be considered. The atlases are compiled by the students by studying and describing the manifestations of the Aboriginal subculture and are made in electronic form. Secondary school students interview community elders, research various documents on topics such as weather prediction, edible and medicinal plants, geographical names, flora and fauna, moon and tidal currents, fishing, rational use of nature, survival school, aurora borealis, etc.
In the mentioned project, the CIA stressed that parents should take the leading place in the ethno-cultural education of Aboriginal students. It is talked about the need to establish systematic communication and cooperation between parents, teachers and students, which will strengthen traditional family values, the connection of generations. One of the important forms of this activity is called parental meetings. An important role in the education of aboriginal students is assigned to cultural camps. For example, in the Old Minto camp, students, teachers, teachers, students of the University of Alaska during the summer holidays for one week under the elders of the tribe immersed in the life and culture of the Aborigines: restore old buildings, build a smokehouse, a fish dryer, craft boats, fishing gear and so on
One of the forms of ethno-cultural education of Aboriginal students was the Academy of Elders of the Tribes. Elders transmit knowledge about traditional culture to teachers, and teachers are looking for ways to incorporate this knowledge into curricula and programs. Thus, for example, teachers attract elders to develop the content of education in mathematics and the natural sciences, taking into account the life and aboriginal life.
In the rural districts of the state, student associations have been established, "Traditional scientific knowledge of the peoples of Alaska and the industrial society", scientific camps and fairs of scientific ideas are organized for Aboriginal students. Their goal is to search for harmonization in the minds of students of ethnic culture and the achievements of modern industrial society. Associations and camps are seen as a way to identify talented youth and form a future scientific elite of the peoples of the North.
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