Variative educational systems of primary education, "School...

Variative educational systems of primary education

Culture Dialogue School

Philosophical-pedagogical concept "School of dialogue of cultures" emerged in the early 80's. XX century. The foundations of this concept were laid by a group of teachers from Kharkov (historian V. Litovsky, I. Solomadin, mathematician S. Kurganov, physicist V. Yampolsky, etc.) and a group of Moscow scientists united around the philosopher V. Bibler. At the center of the group's discussion were the experience and pedagogical ideas of the teachers who developed the methodology of dialogue lessons and a unique understanding of culture. As a result of meetings and discussions appeared articles by Vladimir Bibler, Sergei Kurganov's book "The Child and the Adult in the Educational Dialogue" and a number of other publications. The group was soon joined by teachers from other cities, who saw in the concept of the School important conclusions for themselves.

The essence of the concept is that the school is an institution of civilization, designed to introduce a growing person into culture. That is, the very image of the school is associated with a certain holistic culture, with a certain mind, a certain idea of ​​the individual. The meaning of the school is changing, there is a shift of its purpose "from the educated person" to the "man of culture", "combining in his thinking and activities different, not reducible to each other cultures, forms of activity, value, semantic spectra". As S. Yu. Kurganov points out, "the dialogue in this concept appears in three forms: as a dialogue of different historically existing logics, cultures, ways of understanding; as a special form of communication between the teacher and the student, in which ... the students "grope for their own view of the world"; as an inner dialogue of the thinker. - E. Z. ] with yourself .

The concept quickly won supporters among practitioners who enthusiastically set about creating classes and schools of the Dialogue of Cultures. At the same time, implementing the concept in their educational institutions, they creatively supplemented and modified the original project in accordance with their experience and conditions. Classes and schools SHDK almost never were created only on the basis of the initial concept; they always formed in combinations, in a dialogue with other pedagogical practices, with the experience, interests and convictions of those people and schools that were taken for it. The nature of the spread of the methods and ideas of the dialogists turned out to be similar ("isomorphic") to their very concept, became the embodiment of the idea of ​​a productive dialogue between different pedagogical cultures.

First, unlike other pedagogical systems, schools of dialogue of cultures are essentially different, remaining similar only on the main point - the dialogization of education.

Secondly, the significance of this educational concept is that the educational systems built on its basis accumulated a huge array of ideas, methods, descriptions. The energy, the acuteness of the declared problems and their multidimensionality, the originality of the solutions and the unexpectedness of the results allow the dialogue teachers to consider the line of dialogical education as perhaps the brightest experimental direction of the past 30 years.

The content of the SDK concept is implemented in the stages of schooling.

So, in the 1-2 classes - the preparatory classes, which are called the "surprise point classes", - the "nodules of understanding" are tied up. future cultural and historically considered educational subjects. The main subjects in these classes are the riddles of the word, the riddles of the number, the mysteries of the phenomena of nature, the moments of history, the subject tools. Based on the psychology of experiences, on emotional child sensitivity, in these initial nodules of surprise there is a transition from the dominant thinking of the preschooler to the dominant consciousness of the younger schoolboy.

From these nodules of surprise, the following threads of knowledge diverge: there is a process of formation in children of the initial scientific concepts of time - history, about the word - grammar, poetics, etymology, number - arithmetic, geometry, set theory, forms of communication and human relationships - ethics, morality, morality. Assimilation of these nodal concepts is carried out in a complex "game" (i.e., interactive dialogue) of the external language and the inner speech of the child.

In the future, they become the subjects of the main dialogues between different cultures, classes, ages. In primary school, therefore, the first approaches to the modern problems of various fields of knowledge (mathematics, physics, poetics, linguistics, etc.) unfold, and more in-depth consideration (and redefinition) of which occurs at subsequent stages of instruction. In addition, there are childish questions, surprise at seemingly obvious facts; and this allows adults to take a new look at a long and well-known, to re-think the obvious, to value the ordinary.

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