Zone of proximal development, Sensitive periods, Principles...

Area of ​​proximal development

Nearby development zone Is the term used by Vygotsky in his theory of development and designating tasks that the child can not yet solve on his own, but is able to do this with the help of adults or more skilful peers. This important idea of ​​Vygotsky's theory emphasizes that the child's knowledge develops through active interaction with peers and adults who consistently direct him to solve increasingly complex problems. Over time, dialogues with adults are internalized and become part of the child's inner experience. Thus, in the future, he can use this experience to independently solve similar problems.

Sensitive periods

The term sensible periods describes the periods of development in which the developing organism is particularly sensitive to certain kinds of environmental influences. These are the periods of optimal development of certain aspects of the psyche. Excessively early learning can adversely affect mental development, as well as a very late onset. It is about the optimal combination of conditions for the development of certain mental properties and processes inherent in a certain age period. Premature or delayed in relation to the sensory period, training may not be effective enough, which will adversely affect the development of the psyche.

Principles - the basis of scientific research

Many patterns of the psyche in psychology are expressed in the form of certain principles. Let us take, for example, the principle of reality - one of the aspects of Freud's theory. Its essence lies in the fact that we are aware of the requirements of the environment and act in such a way as to limit the impulsive urges of It in accordance with the current situation. For example, if It pushes us to seek sexual satisfaction, our Self limits this need until a convenient opportunity is presented. Another principle introduced by Freud is used by the impulsive and egocentric part of our personality, which is usually identified with Ono. We unconsciously strive to satisfy the desires associated with this principle, despite their real or moral consequences.

We also refer to the principle of growth. It describes part of the attribution process (the way we evaluate the causes of behavior or the personality characteristics of a person, judging by his behavior), when the role of a particular cause increases if it leads to a positive effect, despite the presence of constraints. For example, a person who has successfully passed the exam, in spite of poor quality of teaching, confused textbooks and a long illness, can rightly attribute his success at the expense of abilities or persistent struggle (subjective factors) than another person who was not in such disadvantageous position.

You can also characterize the principle of conservation. It is about understanding that physical characteristics (such as weight, volume, etc.) remain unchanged, despite the change in their external world. This is a characteristic of pre-operational thinking according to the theory of intellectual development according to J. Piaget. For example, a child is shown two rows of coins. Each row contains the same number of coins with equal intervals between them. Then the gaps between the coins in one row increase, and the child claims that now there are more coins than in the other row. Errors in the principle of conservation demonstrate a number of features in the child's thinking, which is at a pre-operational stage of development: thinking is based more on perception than on logic. Distracted by the change in appearance, the child is not able to come to the realization that in fact the characteristics of the object remained unchanged.

Children are prone to centering, i.e. tendencies to concentrate only on one side of the problem, and do not take into account other important features that affect the outcome.

Focusing on the end results, children view them as independent objects, rather than transforming one into another. The extended series of the moment from the above example is considered as another series, and not the same, but undergoing transformation. Children do not have the opposite way of thinking. In other words, the child is not able to mentally produce the opposite effect, i.e. move the coins to their previous position.

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