A note on the methods and forms of cognition - Philosophy of Science

A note on methods and forms of cognition

In United States science philosophy courses, the topic empirical and theoretical levels (and methods) of cognition is often highlighted. The tradition of breeding theoretical and empirical levels and consideration of the methods of each belongs to the positivist line of empiricism. Within the framework of logical positivism (see Chapter 5), which attempted to squeeze the process of constructing natural-science theories into the framework of logic, and as the basis for putting empirical facts independent of the theory, it is quite appropriate to single out abstraction, idealization, formalization, induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis and as "general scientific methods of theoretical cognition," and observation (as a purposeful perception of phenomena without interference in them), experiment (like studying phenomena in controlled and controlled conditions), measurement (as defining the ratio of the measured value to the standard, for example, a meter), comparison (like identifying similarities or differences of objects), etc. - as methods of empirical cognition.

A more recent (including postpositivism (see Chapter 6)) is given in [30], but a similar to empiricism is the distinction between these two levels as actions of executing and not realizing "practical interaction with objects" (assuming the use of instruments). These levels It is possible to compare the operational and theoretical parts on the scheme (9.2.1). However, the object The view expressed by the schemes (9.1.2) and (9.2.1) goes beyond empiricism (and "standard view" of logical positivists). As part of this approach, it can be seen that when discussing these two levels the focus is only on the right-hand side of the scheme (9.1.2) - the relationship between the phenomenon and its theory (referred to as "normal science" by T. Kuhn, to the construction of SIV). In addition, the logical operations listed above, firstly, enter into scientific thinking at both "levels", and secondly, even within the "normal science" (the work of the SIV-type), in the natural sciences, the construction of models in the center turns out, the units of which are not statements or statements (and not "laws", as in [30]), but PIO, thirdly, the creation of ideal objects-a complex the process for describing which of the operations listed above is not enough.

The hypothetical-deductive method (see paragraph 4.2) that dominates the empirical, positivistic and logically centered neo-positivist tradition should also be referred to the widely discussed methods of cognition. The procedural aspect of this method includes such logical operations as the formulation of the problem, fixing the "knowledge of ignorance" in the form of an unresolved problem or issue [problem], the hypothesis as an element of presumptive solutions to the problem, hypothesis testing. In principle, testing the hypothesis does not differ from the verification of the theory. Hypothesis - ... a link in the development of scientific knowledge ... supposed, probable knowledge ... Having received confirmation, the hypothesis turns into truth (true position (accurate to of the problems discussed in paragraph 6.2) - AL ) and ceases to exist on this. The refuted hypothesis becomes a false position (or system of positions - AL ) and again ceases to be a hypothesis. The hypothesis is advanced in science to solve a specific problem. " [13]. Problems, hypotheses, theories are often identified as basic "forms of scientific knowledge". In this sequence, the theory of the hypothesis is more valid and systematic (several hypotheses are often combined in theory).

Thus, it is necessary to distinguish at least three different meanings of the concept "natural science theory": 1) procedural, where it is compared with the hypothesis; 2) simplified structural-empiric, where it is opposed to experience; 3) more complex structural, corresponding to the scheme (9.1.2), where the theory differs not only from the empirical phenomenon, but also from the empirical laws, on the one hand, and the bases of the division of science, on the other.

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