In connection with the growing interest in religious philosophy and a revision of the tendencies that go back to classical German philosophers of the nineteenth century, it is appropriate to dwell on the concept of "metaphysics", closely related to the category of being.
Etymologically, everything here is quite simple: from the Greek. meta - over, over. Thus, anything that exceeds physical reality refers to a metaphysical reality. And this can be not only, for example, spiritual, but also biological, and social reality - they are superphysical, after all. But iodine metaphysics was understood as a special supersensible reality, which is beyond the limits of experience, experiment, observation, both direct and indirect. However, experiment, observation, experience of man and mankind is still available to a very small fraction of what exists. All rest is in an area beyond the reach of human sensuality. Reflections on this are metaphysics.
The subject of metaphysics, in its primary sense, reasoning about the absolute world-wide, inaccessible to any feeling, as well as about free will, God, immortality, eternity and infinity, and the like.
In connection with what has been said, it is useful to mention the categories of transcendental and transcendental. These are two different stages of supersensible reality. Undoubtedly, being is supersensitive, but it is not necessarily supernatural, supra-world. Such reality is beyond the bounds of empiricism and is characterized, by Kant, the so-called a priori ( experienced ) forms of cognition (such as space and time as forms of sensory cognition and causality as categories of reason), is called transcendental.
Above it is a completely over-the-top reality, which is in fact inaccessible to theoretical knowledge. This is Kant's transcendental, or noumenal, reality . According to all religiously thinking philosophers, God is a transcendental reality (but not all transcendental divinely).
The first thing that affects the imagination of a person when he observes the world around him is the amazing variety of objects, processes, properties and relationships. We are surrounded by forests, mountains, rivers, seas. We see stars and planets, we admire the beauty of the northern lights, the flight of comets. The diversity of the world can not be accounted for. You need to have a great power of thought and a rich imagination in order to see the unity and unity behind the diversity of things and phenomena of the world.
All objects and processes of the external world have such a common feature - they exist outside and independently of consciousness, being reflected directly or indirectly in our sensations. In other words, they are objective. First of all, on this basis, philosophy unites and generalizes them in one concept matter. When it is said that matter is given to us in sensations, it means not only the direct perception of objects , but also indirect. We can not see, touch, for example, individual atoms. But we feel the action of bodies consisting of atoms.
When a person sets himself the goal of finding a uniform substance as some initial of everything, he acts in the same way as if he wanted to eat the fruit in place of cherries and pears. But this is also an abstraction. Matter can not be seen, felt, tasted. What is seen, perceived, there is a certain kind of matter. Matter is not one of the things that exist alongside others. All existing concrete material formations are matter in its various forms, types, properties, and relations. There is no faceless matter. Matter - This is not a real possibility of all forms, but their actual being. The only relatively different property from matter is only consciousness, spirit.
Every more or less consistent philosophical thinking can derive the unity of the world either from matter or from the spiritual principle. In the first case we are dealing with the materialistic, and in the second case with idealistic monism (from the Greek one, the only one). There are philosophical doctrines that stand on the positions of dualism (from Latin dualism).
Some philosophers see the unity of objects and processes in their reality, in that they exist. It really is something in common that unites everything in the world. But the principle of the material unity of the world does not mean the empirical similarity or identity of specific existing systems, elements and specific properties and regularities, but the community of matter as a substance, as a bearer of diverse properties and relationships.
The infinite universe, both in the great and the small, both in the material and in the spiritual, is subject to the universal laws, connecting everything in the world into a single whole. Materialistic monism rejects the views that distinguish consciousness, reason in a special substance that is opposed to nature and society. Consciousness - is both a knowledge of reality and its component. There is no impassable gap between the laws of the movement of the world and the consciousness of man . Consciousness does not belong to any other world, but to the material world, although it opposes it as spirituality. It is not a supernatural unique, but a natural property of highly organized matter.
Matter in the physical sense has a diverse, intermittent structure. It consists of parts of different sizes, qualitative determinateness - elementary particles, atoms, molecules, radicals, ions, complexes, macromolecules, colloid particles, planets, stars and their systems, galaxies. More than 30 different elementary particles are now found, and together with resonances (particles that live very short time) there are about 100 of them. Attempts are being made to find a deep internal connection between elementary particles and to create for them something like DI Mendeleev's Periodic System. Elementary particles differ in rest mass and, in accordance with this, are divided into ribbons (light particles), mesons (middle particles) and baryons (heavy particles). In addition, there are particles that do not have a rest mass, for example, photons.
Atoms are built from positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electron shells. The nuclei consist of protons and neutrons, collectively called nucleons.
From discontinuous forms of matter are inseparable continuous form. These are different types of fields - gravitational, electromagnetic, nuclear. They bind particles of matter, allow them to interact and thereby exist. So, without gravitational zeros, nothing would unite stars into galaxies, and matter itself into stars. There would be no solar system, no sun, no planets. In general, all bodies would cease to exist - without electrical and magnetic fields, nothing would bind atoms to molecules, and electrons and nuclei to atoms.
The world and everything in the world is not chaos, but a systematically organized system, a hierarchy of systems. By the structural nature of matter is meant an internally dissected integrity, a natural order of the connection of elements in the whole. Being and the motion of matter are impossible outside its structural organization. The concept of structure is applicable not only to different levels of matter, but also to matter as a whole. Stability of the basic structural forms of matter is conditioned by the existence of its unified structural organization. In this sense, we can say that each element of matter bears the seal of the world's whole. In particular, as science shows, the electron has a direct relation to the Cosmos, and understanding of the Cosmos is impossible without considering the electron.
One of the attributes of matter is its indestructibility, which manifests itself in the totality of concrete laws of conservation of the stability of matter in the process of its change. Investigating the foundation of matter, modern physics has discovered the universal transformability of elementary particles. In a continuous process of mutual transformations, matter is preserved as a substance, i.e. as the basis of all changes. The transformation of mechanical motion due to friction leads to the accumulation of the internal energy of the body, to the enhancement of the thermal motion of its molecules. Thermal motion in turn can turn into radiation. The law of conservation and transformation of energy says: whatever transformation processes occur in the world, the total amount of mass and energy remains unchanged. Any material object exists only in connection with others and through them it is connected with the whole world.
The principle of indestructibility and the irreducibility of matter is of great methodological importance. Guided by it, science has discovered such fundamental laws as the laws of conservation of mass, energy, charge, parity, and many others, which allowed deeper and fuller understanding of the processes that occur in various areas of nature. The most important laws of scientific knowledge serve as tools for criticizing erroneous views.
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