About reason and reason, mind and wisdom, Reason and...

About reason and reason, mind and wisdom

Reason and Mind

According to the method of mental activity, the thinking consciousness of personality can be divided into two main types: reason and reason. The first of the thinkers who caught the heterogeneity of the character of thinking was Heraclitus, who showed that thinking in one way is less complete, limited, a person does not rise up to the general. Reason is the ability to perceive nature in a holistic way, in its movement and interconnection. Socrates understood by reason the average, typical for many levels of thinking, the ability to coordinate internal rules with external activities. Plato believed that reason is the ability to contemplate things in terms, and reason is sufficient for everyday use in practical activities. According to Aristotle, the wiser is not the one who acts directly, but the one who owns knowledge in a general form. Reason manifests itself in the private sciences, in some special field. Its function is the making of judgments, a formal attitude to things. Reason is oriented to the existent; he is reflexive. As Nicholas of Cusa argued, reason tears up contradictions, opposing opposites to each other. The essence of the mind is abstractness. The mind thinks and resolves contradictions; he thinks the world as a process. B. Spinoza argued that the mind is abstract and operates according to established, firm rules of the intellect, deriving, on the basis of general concepts, conclusions about the phenomena of the world. Spinoza expressed an interesting thought: the reason, acting according to certain rules, is a kind of spiritual automaton, and reason serves as the supreme regulator of social life and human activity and is directed to the common good. He is in oneness with being, comprehending things as they exist in themselves.

The French thinkers of the eighteenth century viewed the mind only from the negative side, as an activity aimed at self-preservation and delivering only personal advantages that do not extend to humanity. II. Holbach, for example, defined the mind as the ability to distinguish the useful from the harmful by the experience and reflection. Reason is devoid of a creative attitude to life; it often leads to conservatism. In the turbulent, critical epochs of social life, the mind is needed primarily, which finds the right solution in the most complex and contradictory situations.

Critical attitude to reason distinguished I. Kant, who believed that thinking develops from reason to reason. The first prerequisite of mind was not fully aware of itself reason - dogmatism, when the philosopher, revealing a number of fairly extensive and, as he thought, steadfast principles, was convinced that the human mind, based pa them to be able to know all things. Kant defined reason as a cognitive ability, which makes it possible to comprehend the common in objects. This is a mind-oriented ability to think through concepts according to certain rules. Then skepticism comes when the mind, realizing itself, criticizes its dogma, though still with very limited items. Skepticism is a kind of halt for the human mind, where it can critically discuss the path that has been traveled and plan for further movement. Finally, the third, higher stage is coming-the actual reason itself, which inevitably encounters the questions that lead to dialectics. For the mind is characterized not only criticality, but also self-criticism. "Objections to the self-confidence and self-importance of our ... speculative reason are given by the very nature of this mind ... - Kant wrote in one of his fundamental works "Critique of Pure Reason" (1781). The mind has great independence and, due to constant self-testing, has a tendency to improve.

And. G, Fichte, criticizing the rationale for individualism, interprets the mind as the higher development of the human, the social is begun in man. Reasonable life is that "private life is dedicated to the life of the family, or to the individual forgetting himself in others ..."

According to G. Hegel, the essence of the work of the understanding is the decomposition of integral objects into component parts. In this act, the basic power of the intellect, capable of dividing, breaking, seemingly inseparable, is manifested. Reason, in addition, is a necessary and essential moment of education. Without reliance on solid definitions of reason it would be impossible to agree on any issue. Reason and reason are the moments of a single, internally contradictory, evolving, ascending process of thinking. Reason, in contrast to the mind, first considers the general, but only then the difference. He often connects one with another in a purely external way. Reason believes that thinking "is not more than a loom; on which the basis-say, identity-and duck-difference-are externally connected and intertwined. "

Reasoning thinking says: "Separation is guarded by love", it also claims: "Out of sight - out of mind". Unlike reason, which has a formal, algorithmic character, the mind is dialectical, grasps the contradictions in their unity, and its logical form is the idea - the higher development of the concept, carrying in itself a dialectical contradiction and a charged energy of goal-setting.

In the philosophical and psychological literature until the last years, the concepts "reason" and mind were not specifically analyzed, used not categorically, but as concepts, perhaps, synonymous with thinking, intellect. And only recently, the concepts of "reason" and mind began to be intensively investigated. There have been a lot of works on this topic, in which it is asserted that reason is the lowest stage of logical understanding. This is rather an everyday, calculating thinking, characterized by sensual concreteness and oriented to practical use. Most of the concepts, concepts of everyday life consists of what is called reason or common sense.

Reason is the highest stage of logical understanding, a theoretical, reflective, philosophically thinking consciousness that operates with broad generalizations and is oriented toward the most complete and profound knowledge of the truth. Thinking at the level of reason, according to EP Nikitin , is freed from frozen mental forms and becomes consciously free. At the level of reason, the subjective attains maximum unity with the objective in the sense of completeness and comprehensiveness of understanding, and also in the sense of the unity of theoretical and practical thinking. At this level, knowledge is the most profound and generalized. Reasonable consciousness is a deeply dialectical process. The effectiveness of thinking depends on the past experience, the realistic evaluation and mental abilities of a person, which in turn implies the ability to optimally organize the thinking, feelings and behavior of a person. The more perfect this organization, the more perfect the mind.

Mind and wisdom

Clever - it means well-thinking. Thinking is a process, and the mind is an ability. Intelligent and wise is one who has the ability to understand and find solutions in a complex, confusing, dark environment. And it's not for nothing that Minerva's owl, carrying out its flight at dusk, symbolizes wisdom - the highest degree of the mind. A fool is called a person whose thinking is primitive, chaotic; his judgments are ill-considered, disordered, inconsistent. According to IV Goethe, of all thieves the fools are the most harmful: they both steal time and mood from us. B. Pascal wrote: "Why is this lame person does not irritate us, and the mentally lame annoying? Because the lame man realizes that we are walking straight, and the mentally lame person claims that he is not, but we are limping; if not for this, we would have felt sorry for him, and not anger. "

The measure of the human mind and its effectiveness are determined by the degree of adequacy to the logic of things, events and the appropriateness of their transformation. According to Democritus, "from wisdom, the following three [fruits] are obtained: [a gift] to think well, speak well and do well." A smart person is not just a person who knows a lot. Even Heraclitus noticed that knowledge does not teach the mind. Wishing to emphasize the difference between wisdom and the mind, Aristotle wrote that wisdom is knowledge and intuition of the most valuable things in its nature. Because Anaxagoras, Thales and the like are called sages, and not just smart, that they ignore their own benefit in their work. The meaning of wisdom, its purpose - in truth, in truth and good. Wisdom is impossible without knowledge, but knowledge is not equal to wisdom: not everyone who is knowledgeable is wise. Wisdom gives inner harmony to thoughts and good deeds. It seems that short wisdom can be defined as an extraordinary mind morally sanctioned. Bandit, a thief can be clever and cunning, but there is no grain of wisdom in it.

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