Adoption of managerial decisions, Subject and object of management - Philosophy

Adoption of management decisions

The main task of the management structure is the development and implementation of management decisions. Here the important principle is the optimality meaning that in the development of the management decision, it is necessary to take into account the maximum possible options for its execution and choose those that most fully ensure the achievement of the goals. Consequently , the management decision is developed by the subject with an orientation to the object of management, to take into account his needs and interests, as well as his real capabilities and the conditions for the transformation of these opportunities into a real execution of the decision. Adopted management decisions can claim reality insofar as they are feasible in principle. The nature of economic management in modern conditions makes the subject of management demand a higher responsibility for making managerial decisions, which is determined both by the scale of administrative influences and by the complexity of the structural organization of the management object.

Administrative commands can be rigidly determined when the control action tends to uniquely "program" behavior of the "addressee", and, so to speak, mildly deterministic, when the management program assumes a relatively wide range of possible types and forms of behavior of control objects. However, in history, hard and soft management principles are rarely encountered in the "clean" form: management in the economic sphere, as a rule, combines these two principles in one way or another. Most paradoxically, they are combined in systems in which the mechanism of spontaneous management is implemented, which is very clearly seen in the example of the market where the "invisible hand", which A. Smith wrote, is operating. On the one hand, this hand directs the free game of elemental forces, allowing flexibility, the compassion of competing parties, and on the other - dictates cruel and ruthless rules of the game, inexorable, as fate. The market powerfully says: production must work for the consumer. According to G. Tard, economists have already done a great service to social science, replacing the principles of war, which served as the key to history, the idea of ​​competition - a special kind of war, not only relaxed but reduced and multiplied simultaneously. Finally, if we stick to this point of view, then at the basis of what economists call a competition of needs and competition of producers, competition of prices, etc., one must also see competition of desires and certainties, even competition of characters, minds and forms of cunning.

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Subject and control object

The whole aggregate of social interactions can ultimately be regarded as the interaction of the subject and the object of management. Both the subject and the control object have a complex, multilevel structure. As the subject of management are and social institutions, organizations (including public), and labor collectives, and individuals. However, in the final analysis, managerial decisions actually accept real persons who are vested with the appropriate authority, which presupposes a high degree of responsibility. The subject of management is subject to increased demands: competence, the availability of a managerial (administrative) mindset, which, on the one hand, is prepared by the entire system of educational and educational facilities, and on the other - involves natural endowments. A necessary condition for the entity to make an effective management decision and to exercise reasonable control over its execution is, as already mentioned, the high quality of information, its completeness, timeliness, and the speed with which it is received and processed. This condition requires the subject to have deep and comprehensive knowledge of significant properties, conditions, trends in the movement of the object under his control, the conditions of his existence, as well as faith (in the sense of certainty) and the desire for certain economic results. This is natural: a man desires something, therefore, he strives for something, and secondly, he is certain in one way or another (convinced - clearly or vaguely, consciously or intuitively) in the realization of this desire and the means of his implementation. This is the competence of the governing body or person.

The object of management, in whatever form and at whatever level it may appear (be it an enterprise, an institution), really and actually are people: collectives or individuals who are endowed (or not endowed ) mind, will, talent, and therefore are able (or incapable) to make appropriate decisions and carry them out. This reflects the fundamental pattern of all socio-economic processes: in order to be realized, any of them must "humanize", i.e. embodied in the actions of specific people.

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F. Schaeffer is a Christian theologian of the 20th century. - wrote the book "No Little People", insisting on the importance of each person and any work. Of course, people holding different positions bear different responsibilities in this regard and must have different skills. The responsibility and skills of the entrepreneur increase with the increase in the number of his subordinates, the amount of products produced by his enterprise, the amount of his profit or budget appropriations. A higher degree of responsibility lies with those who make decisions and develop a strategy for the development of the enterprise, having serious consequences in the fate of this enterprise and thus in the fate of workers. For example, a worker at a chocolate factory that determines the consistency of a chocolate mass has a greater responsibility than one who cleans chocolate containers. Consequently, all positions and professions are important and necessary, because the people occupying them make their own feasible contribution to the common cause.

The society manages not only the collectives of people, but also the technology of production, the placement of economic zones, etc. However, the management of the latter is also always mediated by managerial interactions between people.

The subject and the control object, as noted above, are relative concepts. Man, in one interaction acting as a subject, in the other acts as an object of control and vice versa. And even within the same interaction, the subject is also controlled by the object, which in this case acts as a subject of management. Therefore, effective management is possible only under the condition of reasonable control both for the decision itself and for its execution, not only from above, but also from below: an uncontrolled employee, as a rule, morally decomposes; The same thing happens, however, with the leader. The principle of feedback in relation to socio-economic governance is expressed not only in the implementation and systematic control, but, most importantly, involves the initiative, understanding, co-creation and even the present creativity of those who act in this situation as an object of management. If anyone knows what decision he must make in order to produce something good, or to interfere with anything bad, but does not, then this is called cowardice; if it is large, it is called fearfulness. "

The managerial intention is not only executed "from and to", but is creatively concretized and developed, turns into something more than the original plan, influencing the adjustment of the initial managerial position at other levels of managerial decisions. The reverse initiative presupposes the presence in the management object of not only a certain sum of psychological principles, but also a sense of responsibility for one's own business, unity of will and actions of the leader and leader. In essence, this reveals the meaning and content of the democratization of governance, so necessary for its effective implementation, especially in the economic sphere of society, which is realized in the work of every concrete enterprise and labor collective.

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