Aesthetic Consciousness and Art Philosophy
The essence of the aesthetic and the form of its manifestation
Aesthetic consciousness is a phenomenon of spiritual culture. As many thinkers have pointed out, and as G. Hegel has pointed out extensively, the mind is lifeless without feeling and powerless without will. The concepts of truth and good are incomplete without beauty, and it, in turn, is shown where the mind has approached the truth, and the will is directed to good. "I am convinced," wrote Hegel, "that the supreme act of the mind, embracing all ideas, is an aesthetic act, and that truth and good unite in kinship only in beauty." In no field can one be spiritually developed without an aesthetic sense.
Antiquity actively reflected on its spiritual activities, not only over its content, but also on its form, which was manifested in the introduction of aesthetic concepts of beauty, measure, harmony, perfection in the composition of the main categories of being. The ancient thinkers attributed their adherence to aesthetics to the fact that only this form adequately expresses being and the world as a whole, which is fundamentally hidden behind things, in seemingly chaotic forms, the fundamental principle of harmony and beauty. Beauty for Antiquity was an attribute of the world itself, and not just a person looking at this world. Moreover, beauty and harmony were also synonyms of the rational, for it is clear that the world organized according to the laws of beauty can not be arranged unreasonably, and, conversely, if it is arranged intelligently, it is clear that it is arranged according to the laws of harmony. The concrete embodiment of beauty as the principle of the world order was, of course, interpreted in different ways: it consisted of an idea, a mind, like Plato and Aristotle, then in number, like Pythagoras. But anyway, and the doctrine of beauty in ancient aesthetics, in fact, did not separate from the doctrine of being, which means that the questions of truth, beauty and good were not in classical Antiquity different questions: they merged into an indivisible unity . Not only classical Antiquity, but also the end of Antiquity, and all the Middle Ages are characterized by the entry of aesthetic inside the main philosophical or theological - the issues under discussion.
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Special reflection on the aesthetic began in the Renaissance, when the first person was nominated. The authority of aesthetic terminology increased sharply, and she returned to the composition of philosophical knowledge. The fact of the isolation of aesthetics as an independent form of spiritual activity naturally led to the isolation of beauty, which used to intrinsically penetrate and thereby synthetically unite truth and good, and now entered as an equal character in the developing historical drama, in the struggle for the leading position. Beauty was declared the perfection of sensory cognition, and the place of beauty's stay was no longer the world itself (as it was in Antiquity), but art as the result of man's creative activity. Art is not only allowed, but it is also prescribed to consider nature through the prism of aesthetic feelings of a person, through the prism of morality. Beauty, in which sensual attraction is permeated with moral goodness, acts as a miracle. Recognition of the aesthetic property of art alone deprived the aesthetic consciousness of its synthesizing function, detached the aesthetics from all other activities, from social life in general, turned art into an end in itself. From this point of view, the truth refers to the world, and beauty - to human creativity or to the beauty of nature taken outside the society. For the first time in history, between truth and beauty, a logical abyss was established, the same abyss that separates nature and the creative spirit of man.
The romantics (A. and F. Schlegely) gave the most detailed substantiation of this point of view, then it was developed in classical German idealism (K. Fisher), in Neo-Kantianism of the 19th and 20th centuries. (G. Cohen). Similar constructions are at the basis of all the varieties of the purely aesthetic theory of "pure art", i.e. art for art's sake. Beauty is placed above truth and good. Art, according to B. Croce, in itself is the highest reality; it is beyond cognition and beyond morality. From this point of view, man as the creator of art is absolutely self-sufficient, he does not need either nature or society. The real world of the spirit, the supreme reality of being, is the world of art (Sh. Baudelaire, O. Wilde), which alone can compensate for the insufficiency and defectiveness of social life (United States symbolism) and which eclipses all "doomed to failure" attempts of natural and social sciences to penetrate into the deep, existential nature of man himself (J.-P. Sartre).
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According to IV Goethe, there is no sharp border between truth and beauty, on the contrary, beauty is truth; it is a manifestation of the deep laws of nature, which, without finding them in phenomena, would forever remain hidden for our gaze. The laws of nature and the laws of beauty can not be separated from each other. Everything that is beautiful in nature, says Goethe, is an expression of the laws of nature. Man here is no longer self-sufficient for art: it naturally refers to the external world, and not only to nature, but also to society, to other people. On the other hand, science is not self-sufficient for the knowledge of the world. According to Goethe, the one to whom nature begins to reveal its secrets, is experiencing an irresistible, passionate striving for its most worthy interpretation of the means of art.
The Age of Enlightenment and virtually the entire official ideology of the early nineteenth century. were imbued with rationalism, i.e. were inclined to entrust the solution of the basic questions of being to the natural-scientific mind; From this point of view, art was not considered a means of knowing the world, but only a form of human self-affirmation. Since the end of XIX century. European philosophers persistently started talking about the "crisis of rationalism" (S. Kierkegaard, F. Nietzsche, O. Spengler), on the need to return to culture the principle of the triunity of reason, will and feeling, i.e. truth, goodness and beauty, claiming that in the process of activity and knowledge of the world and himself, a person should not be limited to reason or will, that without the aesthetic perception of the world and himself, he loses the main thing - his organic connection with the world, his inner integrity, which means , and moral and psychological stability. You can not treat the idea of beauty only as an attribute of perfect works of art created by the person himself. Aesthetic attitude should be extended to the world as a whole, and to all activities, and to the inner life of the person himself. Only the aesthetic ensures the integrity of the culture.
For United States culture of the XIX century. was characteristic of Goethe's view of the essence of beauty, and if in Western European aesthetic teachings more emphasis was placed on the correspondence of the laws of beauty and the laws of nature, and the laws of beauty were still considered an attribute of human activity alone, the pathos of United States culture went further. In the sensational dissertation of NG Chernyshevsky "Esthetic relation of art to reality" life itself, life as it should be, was considered to be beautiful. it was not just a matter of conformity, but of the supposed identity of truth and beauty in the future. VG Belinsky, DI Pisarev, NA Dobrolyubov, LN Tolstoy, who saw in art primarily a means of moral influence and moral rapprochement of people, and F. F. Beinsky, opposed the formal aestheticism that opposed itself to social being. M. Dostoyevsky, emphasizing the religious significance of beauty.
An aesthetic sense is an inseparable aspect of aesthetic consciousness - an enlightened sense of enjoyment of the beauty of the world. Emotions of art are smart emotions. Instead of manifesting itself in the clenching of the kulaks and in tremors, they are resolved predominantly in images of fantasy. " Emotional-aesthetic attitude of a person to life is always an unfolding (sometimes logically not completely formalized) of some significant aspects, of the connections of reality. Aesthetic feelings are related to the higher forms of psychic experience. They assume a conscious or unconscious ability to be guided by the concepts of beauty when perceiving the phenomena of the surrounding reality, works of art. Aesthetic feelings arise in unity with moral and cognitive feelings and are enriched in connection with them. By the degree of generalization of its subject content, aesthetic feelings are divided into concrete (for example, feelings for a particular work of art) and abstract (sense of tragedy, sublime). Beginning with a sense of moderate pleasure, a person can go through a series of steps down to aesthetic delight. The aesthetic sense developed and improved, revealing to the man more and more aspects of reality - beautiful and ugly, comic and tragic, sublime and low. This feeling has so deeply differentiated the spiritual world of man, that over time, even certain stable aesthetic ideas have acquired a huge number of shades. Thus, the objectively comic in the system of aesthetic perception received such shades as a sense of humor, sarcasm, tragicomic, etc. Unlike the satirical perception of reality, the sense of humor is the ability of a person to play good humor over what is dear to him, displaying in this a deeply aesthetic attitude to this object dear to him.
The developed aesthetic sense makes the personality of the individual individually unique, differentiates his inner world and at the same time harmoniously combines spiritual qualities in him. A person with a developed aesthetic sense is a man of creative impulse, creative attitude to life. It is characteristic that a person with developed healthy aesthetic needs permanently retains not only spiritual, but also physical youth, since the creative, active impulse of his life increases the general tone of his body's vital activity. Indeed, constant communication with nature, the ability to see and create beauty in work, in relationships between people, the ability to deeply feel and understand art - all this enhances the vitality of a person, freeing him from many unnecessary negative emotions and experiences. Developed aesthetic needs make a higher overall culture of feelings, purifying them from vulgar, primitive and gross experiences.
Aesthetic emotions, perfecting humanity, improve and every single person. Thanks to them, the spiritual world of each person becomes deeply individual and unique. The free and wide development of the aesthetic needs of man generates in him only his inherent emotional life, makes his life interesting and colorful, gives him an objectively arisen sense of his originality and social significance.
Aesthetic consciousness exists in every act of human activity, whether it be scientific thinking, sensory contemplation, production activity or even the domestic sphere. A person evaluates from the aesthetic point of view any manifestation, every objective phenomenon opposing him, in short, everything that is only involved in the sphere of his experience. Aesthetic consciousness forms an essential part of the spiritual wealth of people. The aesthetic properties of the phenomena of nature are given to see and hear only the aesthetically developed eye and ear of man. Aesthetic qualities and artistry are neglected, according to FM Dostoyevsky, only uneducated and "hard developed" people.
Aesthetic is directly the given sensual expressiveness of the inner life of an object, which captures in itself the two-sided process of "objectification" human essence and humanization nature and which is perceived by a person unselfishly and experienced as an independent life value. "A man thirsts for her, finds and accepts beauty without any conditions, and so only because she is beauty."
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