Analysis of pedagogical theories of psychological orientation
We remind the reader that their main milestones are represented by the following series of names: Herbart → Ushinsky → Montessori → Wine → Neil → Vygotsky → Piaget → Zankov.
Herbart represents associative psychology, Ushinsky, Montessori, Vin and Zankov - empirical, Neil - Freudian, Vygotsky - cultural and historical, Piaget - cognitive. How do pedagogy and psychology relate to one another? For the topic under discussion, this issue is perhaps central.
Pedagogy, on the one hand, and psychology - on the other, are recognized as separate branches of science. The branches of science are not reducible to each other. Accordingly, pedagogy and psychology in their relationship represent independent realities. This means, in particular, that pedagogy has no place in psychology, and the latter has nothing to do in pedagogy.
The autonomy of the branches of science does not exclude their interconnection, which must be correctly determined. So, we are interested in the ratio pedagogy & lt; = & gt; psychology. It should be noted that the spectrum of interna-tional relations is quite diverse. This circumstance is indicated, for example, by the use of such hybrid terms as mathematical physics, physical chemistry, biosociology, and pedagogical psychology. The use of hybrid terms carries a danger that is not always recognized. As a rule, the ratio of the two branches of science is not a third industry, but a model relation. However, it is wrong to transfer this rule mechanically to the ratio of pedagogy and psychology.An extremely important circumstance is that both pedagogy and psychology have a mesomethane-scientific content. This means that their correlation is not reduced to modeling. The use of psychology in pedagogy enhances the potential of pedagogy, and the application of pedagogy in psychology strengthens the positions of psychology, and not pedagogy. In our opinion, this circumstance is sometimes misunderstood even by outstanding authors.
So, by definition, Π. P. Blonsky "pedagogical psychology is that branch of applied psychology that deals with the application of the conclusions of theoretical psychology to the process of education and training." This definition was supported by Vygotsky, and after him an authoritative modern author. Analyzing the definition of Blonsky, it follows, first, that all psychology has a theoretical character. Secondly, the very concept of applied science, contrasted with the concept of fundamental science, is extremely controversial. Third, psychological pedagogy is pedagogy, not psychology. Using the achievements of psychology does not turn pedagogy into psychology.
Let's explain the above with an example. Suppose that we are talking about the teaching of physics. The teacher is forced to focus on the conceptual structure of physics, not psychology. But it is reasonable to use it and the potential of psychology. As a result, pedagogy and psychology are consistently built on the basis, which in this case is physics.
The explanations made allow us to evaluate the creativity of the authors in question. In the works of three of them, namely Binet, Vygotsky and Piaget, psychology, and not pedagogy, clearly dominates. In this regard, they realize the idea of pedagogy & lt; = psychology. Psychologists study children's psychology, using specific psychological concepts, in particular emotions, memory, thinking, imagination, motivation, frustration , makings, character, temperament, language, schemes of action. Then they compare them with the concepts of pedagogy: an understanding of the conceptual arrangement of educational disciplines, their principles, laws, experimental data, the ability to overcome specific learning difficulties, etc.It is significant that Herbart, Ushinsky, Montessori, Neil and Zankov act differently from Vine, Skinner, Vygotsky and Piaget - take the initiative on behalf of pedagogy, and not psychology, and consequently, develop pedagogical representations of psychological phenomena. Montessori and Zankov were originally professional psychologists, but then re-qualified as teachers.
Thus, the problem series indicated at the beginning of the section should be divided into two contracts:
• Herbart → Ushinsky → Montessori → Neil → Zankov;
• Binet → Vygotsky → Piaget.
When ranking the initial series, it is advisable to take into account the difference between the pedagogical and psychological representations by introducing the appropriate criteria. In addition to them, it is advisable to introduce criteria that take into account the difference of associative, empirical, Freudian, behaviorist, cognitive and cultural-historical psychology. In the final analysis, it will be possible to build a single interpretative system of pedagogical theories, containing in one degree or another psychological orientation.
1. Pedagogy and psychology are able to strengthen each other's potentials.
2. In the inter-scientific relations of psychology and pedagogy, one side is always leading.
3. In pedagogical psychology, the leading part is pedagogy.
4. The reduction of pedagogy to psychology is inconsistent.
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