Analysis of pedagogical theories of activity directionTheories of the activity orientation are represented by a series of Pestalozzi Montessori Deweys Kershensteiner Makarenko Piaget Vygotsky. Piaget → Vygotsky
A person sets himself certain goals and takes actions to achieve them. Activity is the process of achieving a certain goal. The development of a goal is also an activity, for it is the result of a deliberate search. Any form of activity people realize only on the basis of this or that theory. There are as many forms of activity as there are theories. In particular, each scientific theory is evidence of the existence of an appropriate form of activity. Economic activity is judged on the basis of economic theory, political activity - on the basis of political science, etc. The distinction between the forms of activity makes it possible to classify the views of the authors of interest to us.
Montessori and Dewey realized pedagogical activity, understood as the appropriation of certain sciences by students. Piaget and Vygotsky focused their attention on the mental activity of students. Pestalozzi, Kershensteiner and Makarenko put the economic (labor) activity of students at the center of the corner, the immediate goal of which was the production of goods.
Of course, pedagogy should not lose sight of its activity aspect. Montessori and Dewey were able to be in this regard at the right height. Montessori masterfully used various kinds of objects as teaching material. In the previous paragraph it was noted that there is no such science that would be deprived of objects. But objects can have many meanings. If the kids are taught the account, forcing them to keep the mice in their hands, they, it is likely, will be interested primarily in animals, not numbers. To be able to offer those objects that represent the content of a particular science is not an easy task. Montessori had the appropriate skills. Her teaching materials forced children to carry out activities filled with topical conceptual content. In no case should the pedagogue avoid the subject-activity aspect. Any science involves manipulation with certain objects. Ignoring this circumstance leads to impoverishment of the academic disciplines.
Dewey acted in a different manner: the students were given the task of experimentally solving a certain problem. There is a theory, there is a problem. What to do? Create a factual image of the problem situation and check it in the experiment. Dewey, in fact, implemented the strategy: laws → predicted facts → experiment. Such a strategy is not objectionable, but only if its absolutization is not available.
Piaget and Vygotsky focused their attention on action schemes - mental (Piaget) and language (Vygotsky). These approaches also deserve support. Objection is the absolutization of one or another type of action, and, most importantly, a rough idea of conceptual transitions.
The labor strategy of Pestalozzi, Kershensteiner and Makarenko gave rise to many questions, in particular, what should be taught. Production of goods or knowledge? Of course, the production of goods is impossible without certain knowledge. But knowledge is different. With this in mind, the teacher faces a difficult choice. He should decide on the nature of knowledge, which is of paramount importance to students. Learning always follows what is not obscured by side-events. At Kershensteiner's school, students worked a lot on machine tools. At the same time, they comprehended some wisdoms of the mathematical and physical plane, but not directly, but as if bypassing mathematics and physics. Pestalozzi school students conducted agricultural work. But as a result, they multiplied their agricultural knowledge, rather than biological or chemical.
We believe that one should not contrast the different types of knowledge with each other, but find their optimal combination. The following rules are relevant in this case.
1. Ensure the students understand this or that type of knowledge, not indirectly, but directly.
2. Do not oppose different types of knowledge to each other, for to a certain extent each of them is appropriate.
3. Do not oppose the theory and practice: the meaning of practical activity lies in the corresponding theory.
4. Consider the place in the theory of its object-activity aspect.
5. Do not think that the proportions of the combination of different disciplines can be given a priori way. On this account, appropriate experimental data are needed.
As for the rankings of the theories under consideration, this, we believe, is not difficult to implement, in particular, using those criteria for their evaluation, which we cited earlier. Let's add to what has been said that, in the philosophical plan, the most detailed theme of activity is considered, in our opinion, in Marxism and pragmatism. We would prefer pragmatism. In fact, it was under his influence in the XX century. almost in all philosophical directions a pragmatic turn took place.
1. In any theory, an activity view is necessary. However, it should not be absolutized.
2. Representatives of the activity line often underestimate the potential of the theory concepts.
3. There is no need to contrast knowledge and activity.
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