To date, analytical philosophy is perhaps the most developed philosophical direction dominating in English-speaking and Scandinavian countries. It is the same age as the 20th century. Analytical philosophy has passed several phases of development, retaining its originality in basic features.
Stages of development of analytical philosophy
1. Logicist philosophy (G. Frege, B. Russell, early L. Wittgenstein). Its flowering occurred in the 1920s.
2. Logical neopositivism (R. Carnap, H. Reichenbach) was especially popular in the 1940s-1950s.
3. Philosophy of everyday language (late L. Wittgenstein, J. Austin) - 1940-1970
4. Non-Pragmatic Linguistic Philosophy (W. Quine, H. Putnam, R. Rorty) - 1970 - present.
In the first period of development of analytical philosophy, it was dominated by the installation of a logically designed language. It can be said that rationalism was defended, but not of a mental, but of a linguistic property. Three representations of the theory are ranked as follows: linguistic - ontological - mentalological. None of these representations was carried out consistently, because the status of the theory was not taken into account. Dominated by the desire for clarity and naturalness.
L. Wittgenstein believed that the flawlessly correct method is to give the signs of sentences a certain value.
Ultimately, the meaning of any text, and hence of the theory, is reduced to elementary sentences, which denote the joint being of facts. The logic of predicates of the first order, created by G. Frege and B. Russell, was recognized as exemplary in this respect. This is the doctrine of logical atomism, directed primarily against the dialectical logic of Hegel with his desire to subordinate parts to the whole.
Soon one-sidedness of the logistic philosophy, insufficient for mastering the sciences that are beyond logic, was revealed. In this connection, logical positivism has gained popularity. Unlike logicism, he proclaimed physicalism, but also recognized the relevance of logic. Logical positivism in the United States was developed by emigrants from the continental part of Europe. Initially, the originality of the cultural tradition, to which the emigrants belonged, did not have any significant significance. But in the final analysis, they managed to fit organically into American logicism, but not into pragmatism. It is this circumstance that led to the decline of the authority of neopositivism in the United States.
The installation of logic was not sufficient to ensure the expansion of the new philosophy in various spheres of people's lives, including philosophy. But it seemed that for this purpose a linguistic setting is quite suitable. 1
Logicism gave way to linguistics. The desire for linguistic universalism led to interest not only in the languages of sciences, but also in everyday language. The formal logic language obviously lacked pragmatic content. The linguistic turn was organically supplemented by a pragmatic turn.
The notion of the correspondence of the word of reality does not possess the necessary degree of clarity: "The meaning of words," L. Wittgenstein asserted in the second period of his work, is his use in the language of ". "Joint behavior of people - this is the referential system by which we interpret an unfamiliar language." Language is always some form of life that is realized only in the behavior of people. Language and life are inseparable. It is unacceptable to say that people first speak, and only then act.
Words beyond actions and actions outside words are lifeless abstractions.
But what are the words, sentences and systems of sentences, if not reflections of facts? Wittgenstein interpreted them as language games. And since the language is intertwined with the actions of people, the language game is a single whole, language and actions. Wittgenstein turned to the concept of the game is not accidental: it reveals the diversity of lines of people's behavior. Infinitely diverse ways of using words and sentences. Games do not repeat each other, but between some of their types there is a certain similarity, the similarity that Wittgenstein called family. Games of one type are similar to each other, they are conducted in accordance with certain rules (compare with the rules of the game of football or chess), but they are changeable, conditional. The general rule is: "We reject proposals that do not lead us further." All games lead somewhere. But where exactly they lead, Wittgenstein did not explain. Apparently, he believed that since the language game always marks a certain situation, in that way it turns out exactly where it leads. Wittgenstein did not recognize illusory goals. Judging by Wittgenstein's argument, he had to use the behavioral representation of the theory. But he does not have a clear interest in the theory.
John Austin - another classic of the linguistic line in analytical philosophy - the inventor of the concept of speech acts. He believed that any proposals are actions that differ in the degree of their success and failure, or, in other words, illocutionary force. People do things by words. The first place is put not by words, but by acts (actions), which in American literature are also called operations. There is a clear anthology, but at the same time the topicality of the theory is held back. For many representatives of American science is clearly characterized by an antiangiotic syndrome. All of them, one way or another, do not depart from the pragmatic maxim, which, in the opinion of CS Pearce, is as follows: "We should consider all the consequences dictated by some concept which the subject of this concept will have. And those who, according to the same concept, are able to have practical meaning. The concept of these consequences will constitute a complete concept of the subject. "
Cognitive clarity is achieved not in impressions, not in thoughts and not even in practical actions, but in consequences (from English consequences ). Peirce discerns a distinctive consequentialism - a set of consequences and effects is considered, but it is not explained how exactly their effectiveness (from English effectiveness) should be determined.
In our opinion, the effectiveness can not be determined without estimates, and they, as you know, are the values of values or goals. Without a performance concept, it is impossible to determine the degree of success of actions. The action is all the more successful than its result is closer to the previously planned goal.
A number of procedural representations used by English-speaking authors, namely, behavioral, actological (operational) and consequential, in our opinion, do not "hold out" up to a value-purpose explanation and a performance concept. A possible explanation for their moderation is the critical attitude to the theory. The effect recognized as effective, can always be questioned by a critical question: "Is this the result is effective?". Avoiding possible criticism, many English-language authors prefer not to notice values and goals.
At the present stage of its development, there is no trace of the former thematic limitations of analytical philosophy. All topics relevant to philosophical discourse, in particular, the nature of mentality and values, are somehow discussed by philosophers-analysts. On this basis, it is even often believed that the difference between the European continental and analytical philosophy has been erased. In our opinion, such a position is incorrect.
Analytical project for a number of characteristics characteristic of him quite sharply differs from other modern philosophical trends. Its specificity consists in the following ranking of the representations of any theory: pragmatic - linguistic - logical representation. another philosophical direction.
1. Analytical philosophy is the most influential modern philosophical direction.
2. Its priorities are characterized by a certain ranking of the representations of theories.
3. Varieties of pragmatic representation are behavioral, operational and consequential understanding of phenomena of any nature.
4. Representatives of analytical philosophy seek to promote the development of science. Nevertheless, many of them are wary of the phenomenon of scientific theory.
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